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Gleditsia triacanthos - L.
                 
Common Name Honey Locust
Family Fabaceae or Leguminosae
USDA hardiness 4-8
Known Hazards The plant contains potentially toxic compounds[222].
Habitats Usually growing singly, though occasionally forming almost pure woods, on the borders of streams and in rich woods, usually in moist fertile soils but sometimes on dry sterile gravelly hills[43, 82].
Range Eastern N. America. Occasionally naturalized in C. and S. Europe.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Rounded.

Gleditsia triacanthos Honey Locust


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gleditsia_triacanthos_Taub92.png
Gleditsia triacanthos Honey Locust
http://www.andrewdunnphoto.com/
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Gleditsia triacanthos is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Synonyms
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed;  Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Coffee;  Drink;  Gum;  Sweetener.

Seed - raw or cooked. It can contain up to 30% sugar[160]. Young seeds taste like raw peas[183]. Seeds are not always borne in maritime regions because the tree prefers long hot summers[11]. The oval seeds are about 8mm long[227]. They contain 10.6 - 24.1% protein, 0.8 - 4.3% fat, 84.7% carbohydrate, 21.1% fibre, 4% ash, 280mg calcium and 320mg phosphorus per 100g[218]. The seeds have been roasted and used as a coffee substitute[269]. Seedpods - the pulp is sweet and can be eaten raw or made into sugar[149, 159, 183]. The render young seedpods can be cooked and eaten[183]. The pulp in older pods turns bitter[227]. The seedpods are up to 40cm long and 4cm wide[227]. A sweet, pleasant tasting drink can be made from the seed pods[257]. The seed pulp has been used to make a drink[257].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anaesthetic;  Antiseptic;  Cancer;  Stomachic.

The pods have been made into a tea for the treatment of indigestion, measles, catarrh etc[222, 257]. The juice of the pods is antiseptic[222]. The pods have been seen as a good antidote for children's complaints[257]. The alcoholic extract of the fruits of the honey locust, after elimination of tannin, considerably retarded the growth, up to 63% of Ehrlich mouse carcinoma[269]. However, the cytotoxicity of the extract was quite high and the animals, besides losing weight, showed dystrophic changes in their liver and spleen[260]. The alcoholic extract of the fruit exerted moderate oncostatic activity against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinoma at the total dose 350 mg/kg/body weight/mouse. Weight loss was considerable[269]. An infusion of the bark has been drunk and used as a wash in the treatment of dyspepsia[257]. It has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough, measles, smallpox etc[257]. The twigs and the leaves contain the alkaloids gleditschine and stenocarpine[4]. Stenocarpine has been used as a local anaesthetic whilst gleditschine causes stupor and loss of reflex activity[4]. Current research is examining the leaves as a potential source of anticancer compounds[222].
Other Uses
Gum;  Soil reclamation;  Tannin;  Wood.

Planted for land reclamation on mining waste[200]. The gum from the seeds has been suggested as an emulsifying substitute for acacia and tragacanth[269]. The heartwood contains 4 - 4.8% tannin[240]. Wood - strong, coarse-grained, elastic, very hard, very durable in contact with the soil, highly shock resistant[46, 61, 82, 149]. It does not shrink much but splits rather easily and does not glue well[227]. It weighs 42lb per cubic foot[227]. Largely used for making fence posts and rails, wheel hubs, farm implements etc and in construction[46, 61, 82, 149].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Aggressive surface roots possible, Specimen. Succeeds in most soils, acid or alkaline[160, 200], so long as they are well-drained[202]. Requires a sunny position[11]. Tolerates drought once established[1] and atmospheric pollution[200]. Salt tolerant[200]. The honey locust is speculated to tolerate an annual precipitation of 60 to 150cm, an annual temperature range of 10 to 21°C, and a pH in the range of 6 to 8[269]. Trees are rather tender when young, but they are hardy to about -30°c once they are established[200]. They grow best in southern Britain[11]. The honey locust is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible seeds and seedpods[202], trees start to bear when about 10 years old and produce commercial crops for about 100 years[227]. Wild trees seldom live longer than 120 years[229]. Trees are shy to flower and therefore do not often produce a worthwhile crop in Britain due to our cooler summers[202]. There are some named varieties[183]. The sub-species nana produced lots of viable seed in the hot summer of 1989 at Kew[K], it also had a very good crop in 1994, 1996 and in 1999[K]. The sub-species inermis had a very good crop of pods in the autumn of 1996[K]. 'Ashworth' has pods with a very sweet pulp that has a melon-like flavour[183]. The flowers have a pleasing scent[245]. A very ornamental tree[1], the flowers are very attractive to bees[149, 269]. Trees have a light canopy, they come into leaf late and lose their leaves early[11] making them an excellent canopy tree for a woodland garden. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Unlike most plants in this family, honey locusts do not fix atmospheric nitrogen[160, 226]. Special Features:North American native, Naturalizing, Fragrant flowers, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in a greenhouse[78]. The seed should have swollen up, in which case it can be sown, if it has not swollen then soak it for another 24 hours in warm water. If this does not work then file away some of the seed coat but be careful not to damage the embryo[78]. Further soaking should then cause the seed to swell. One it has swollen, the seed should germinate within 2 - 4 weeks at 20°c. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual deep pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
1143200
Links / References
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Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
jordan Mon Jul 14 2008
These plants co-evolved with north american Oligocene mammals and, during the Pleistocene were ecologically connected with elephants, rhinos, horses, mastodons. Without these animals, the once continent-wide plant was only in tiny patches... until cows and horses were brought back to North American by eurpeans. This plant wants Megafauna! it does extremely well with cows and horses... yey for bringing back the Plesitocene!
Elizabeth H.
Sam Alaimo Sat Dec 13 2008
I was wondering if you are aware of any book(s) that translate the meaning of the latin name to English.I am always curious as to how a plant was given its latin name. Thank you.
Elizabeth H.
jumpinjivinjoe Sun Jan 11 2009
Rich's link is outdated, I think the page is http://www.winrock.org/fnrm/factnet/factpub/FACTSH/Gledtri.htm for more info on the honey locust
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Subject : Gleditsia triacanthos  
 

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