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Tsuga caroliniana - Engelm.
                 
Common Name Carolina Hemlock
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 4-7
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Usually found growing singly or in small scattered groves of a few individuals on the rocky banks of streams at elevations of 750 - 1200 metres[82].
Range South-eastern N. America - W. Virginia to Georgia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Green, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Pyramidal.

Tsuga caroliniana Carolina Hemlock


commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Crusier
Tsuga caroliniana Carolina Hemlock
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 1: 62
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Tsuga caroliniana is an evergreen Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Synonyms

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Inner bark - raw or dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[2, 46, 161]. The leaves and twigs yield 'spruce oil', which is used commercially to flavour chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream etc[183]. A herbal tea is made from the young shoot tips[2, 62, 95, 159, 183]. These tips are also an ingredient of 'spruce beer'[183].
Medicinal Uses


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Antipruritic;  Astringent;  Birthing aid;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Kidney.

The bark is astringent, diaphoretic and diuretic[21]. A tea made from the inner bark or twigs is helpful in the treatment of kidney or bladder problems, and also makes a good enema for treating diarrhoea[21]. It can also be used as a gargle or mouthwash for mouth and throat problems or externally to wash sores and ulcers[21]. A poultice of the bark has been used to treat itchy armpits[257]. The powdered bark can be put into shoes for tender or sweaty feet or for foot odour[21]. An infusion of the stem tips has been used to treat kidney problems[257]. A decoction of the roots has been used as a birthing aid to help expel the afterbirth[257]. The roots have been chewed in order to treat diarrhoea[257].
Other Uses
Dye;  Hedge;  Hedge;  Resin;  Rust;  Tannin;  Wood.

The inner bark has been used to make baskets[257]. A rosy-tan dye can be obtained from the bark[257]. The bark is a source of tannin[257]. All the uses listed below are based on the uses of T. canadensis and reports in [46, 61, 82] that this species has similar uses. Yields a resin similar to Abies balsamea, it is gathered by incisions in the trunk or by boiling the wood[46, 61, 64]. A pitch (called hemlock pitch), is obtained by distillation of the young branches[46]. 'Oil of Hemlock' is distilled from the young branches according to another report[82]. The boiled bark has been used to make a wash to clean rust off iron and steel, and to prevent further rusting[257]. Tolerant of light trimming, plants can be grown as a hedge[81]. This species does not make a good hedge in Britain[200]. Some cultivars can be grown as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre apart each way[208]. 'Pendula' is slow-growing but makes a very good cover[208]. Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, not strong, brittle, not durable outdoors[21, 46, 61, 82, 171, 229]. Difficult to work because it splits easily[226]. The wood weighs 26lb per cubic foot[235]. The trees do not self-prune and so the wood contains numerous remarkably hard knots that can quickly dull the blade of an axe[226]. A coarse lumber, it is used occasionally for the outside of buildings[21, 46, 61, 82, 171, 229]. It should be used with caution as a fuel for outdoor fires because it can project embers and burning wood several metres from the fire[226].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Hedge, Aggressive surface roots possible, Screen, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it thrives best when growing in a deep well-drained soil in the western parts of Britain where it appreciates the higher rainfall[11]. However, it succeeds in most soils and positions, being especially good on acidic sandy soils[81] but also tolerating some lime[11] so long as there is plenty of humus in the soil[208]. Plants are very shade tolerant when young, but need more sunlight as they grow older[81, 200]. Plants are thin and poor when grown in dry or exposed places[200]. This species is more tolerant of atmospheric pollution than T. canadensis[11]. A slow growing tree in Britain, it requires hot humid summers[200]. It is probably less slow in the far west and in Ireland[185]. Trees have not done well in this country even though they are very cold-tolerant[11]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - it germinates better if given a short cold stratification[80, 113] and so is best sown in a cold frame in autumn to late winter. It can also be sown in early spring, though it might not germinate until after the next winter. If there is sufficient seed, an outdoor sowing can be made in spring[78]. Pot-grown seedlings are best potted up into individual pots once they are large enough to handle - grow them on in a cold frame and plant them out in early summer of the following year. Trees transplant well when they are up to 80cm tall, but they are best put in their final positions when they are about 30 - 45 cm or less tall, this is usually when they are about 5 - 8 years old[200]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Pseudotsuga menziesiiDouglas Fir, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir22
Tsuga canadensisCanadian Hemlock, Eastern hemlock13
Tsuga chinensisChinese Hemlock12
Tsuga heterophyllaWestern Hemlock12
Tsuga mertensianaMountain Hemlock12
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Author
Engelm.
Botanical References
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Links / References
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Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
mike cooper Thu Jul 15 02:21:25 2004
Is Tsuga caroliniana a good plant for NE Georgia, elevation 1100 feet? I like the mountain look of these trees. Are they easy to find and buy? Any comments or advice? mike cooper 404-648-7871
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Subject : Tsuga caroliniana  

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