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Saccharum officinarum - L.
                 
Common Name Sugarcane, Purple Sugar Cane
Family Poaceae
USDA hardiness 8-12
Known Hazards Leaves and sheaths of some varieties are covered with a large number of siliceous hairs. These hairs penetrate the skin of cane cutters and are most unpleasant; hence cane cutters prefer varieties with few hairs or burnt cane[418 ]. (Plant has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling )
Habitats Not known as a wild plant.
Range Originated in cultivation.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Moist Soil Wet Soil Full sun

Summary
A grass species originated in Southeast Asia, Saccharum officinarum or Sugarcane is a perennial clump-forming plant reaching a height of up to 5m. The leaves are green, alternate, linear, and elongated with internodes, thick midribs, and saw-toothed edges. The leaf ash is used against sore eyes while stem juice is against sore throats, snake bites, and wounds from poison arrows. Leaf decoction, on the other hand, is used in the treatment of urinary conditions. The stems contains a very sweet sap which can be consumed as a drink, made into syrups, or dried to make sugar and molasses among others. It can also be manufactured into alcohol for used as a fuel in combustion engines. The stem also produces wax which can be used in the production of furniture, shoe, leather polishes, electrical insulating material, and waxed paper. Furthermore, the stem yields fiber used for paper-making. Cane residue once sugar is extracted is known as bagasse. It is used as a fuel and for manufacturing paper pulp, plastic, fiberboard, etc.

Saccharum officinarum Sugarcane, Purple Sugar Cane


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Saccharum officinarum Sugarcane, Purple Sugar Cane
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Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Saccharum officinarum is a PERENNIAL growing to 6 m (19ft) by 1.5 m (5ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.

Synonyms
Arundo saccharifera Garsault Saccharifera officinalis Stokes Saccharum atrorubens Cuzent & Pancher e

Habitats
Edible Uses
The stems contain a very sweet sap[46 ]. They are crushed to extract this sap, which is then used in a variety of ways. It can be used as a sweet, refreshing drink, though it is more commonly concentrated to make syrups or dried to make sugar, molasses etc[46 ]. The core of fresh stems is chewed as a sweet refreshment[301 ].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



The leaf ash is used to treat sore eyes[311 ]. The stem juice is used to treat sore throats[311 ]. The sweet juice in the stem is used to treat snakebite and wounds from poison arrows[348 ]. Mixed with an infusion of 'wallaba' (Eperua sp.) it is used to treat curare poisoning[348 ] A decoction of the young leaves is used to treat urinary conditions[348 ].
Other Uses
Agroforestry Uses: Sugar cane is a very greedy crop that soon exhausts the soil. In some countries the plant is intercropped with indigo or other leguminous plants between the rows when the canes are first planted. These legumes are turned into the soil while they are still green and succulent. This process has a very beneficial effect[459 ]. Other Uses A wax obtained from the stems resembles carnauba wax[46 ]. It is used in the production of furniture, shoe, and leather polishes, electrical insulating material, and waxed paper[418 ]. The sweet sap from the stems can be manufactured into alcohol for used as a fuel in infernal combustion engines[46 ]. The stems are a source of fibre used for making paper[46 ]. Bagasse is the residue of the cane after the sugar is extracted. It is used as a fuel and for the manufacture of fibreboard, paper pulp, plastic, furfural, and cellulose[46 , 418 ].
Cultivation details
Agroforestry Services: Nitrogen;  Fodder: Bank;  Global Crop;  Industrial Crop: Biomass;  Industrial Crop: Wax;  Management: Hay;  Other Systems: Dyke-pond;  Other Systems: Homegarden;  Staple Crop: Sugar.

Most commercial sugarcane is grown at latitudes between 35?N and S in the tropics, usually at elevations from sea level to 1,600 metres[418 ]. The plant grows best in areas where the mean annual rainfall is in the range 1,500 - 2,000mm, tolerating 1,000 - 5,000mm[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual temperature within the range 24 - 37?c, though can tolerate 15 - 41?c[418 ]. There are large differences between different cultivars in their tolerance to cold and susceptibility to frost[418 ]. Generally, long-term exposure to temperatures below 10?c can be lethal, whilst even short periods at 0?c causes the leaves to become chlorotic, at about -3?c young plants turn brown and the terminal buds and leaves of mature cane die, when the temperature reaches -11.5?c the whole plant dies[418 ]. Grows best in a sunny position. A very greedy plant, soon exhausting the soil of nutrients[459 ]. The plant is considered to be moderately tolerant to saline soil conditions and relatively tolerant of acid soils[418 ]. Grows best in a position sheltered from strong winds[418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 8, but can tolerate 4.5 - 9[418 ]. Well-grown plants can become invasive[200 ]. When irrigated, yields of 100 - 150 tons of cane can be obtained from mature plants[418 ]. Young plants can yield 60 - 90 tons[418 ]. There are many named varieties[301 ]. The roots develop from the growth ring on the original planting piece and also from the new shoots that develop. The majority of the roots are thin and superficial with four fifths of the roots commonly found in the top 25 - 50cm of the soil. Thicker roots will penetrate to depths of 4 metres or more[418 ]. Flowering Time: Late Winter/Early Spring. Bloom Color: White/Near White.
Propagation
Seed - Cuttings, consisting of 2 - 3 joints of the upper part of a stem that has been selected from a vigorous, healthy plant. They are placed in the ground with only 2 - 5cm of the cutting projecting above the surface. In about two weeks from planting the 'eyes' at each node will send forth shoots, and roots will grow from the nodes themselves. As the shoots develop, the parent stem decays and the young plants produce roots of their own[459 ].

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Other Names
Sugarcane, Purple Sugar Cane, Burgundy Sugar Cane, Black Magic Repellent Plant, Ampow, Arekie, Bos, Bus, Cana de acucar, Cana sacarina, Canna da zuccehero, Canne a sucre, Cheruku, Dovu, Ebikajjo, Fo'u, Ganiesi, Ganna, Guru, Hetaru, Hong gan zhe, Ikshu, Karimbu, Karumbu, Kelju, Khanda, Kolchu, Maphu, Menhet, Mihali, Misale, Mlungo muwa, Moko, Mzimbe, Njuwa, Oy, Paat, Patta patti kabbu, Paunda, Poovan, Pundia, Rosan, Sarkara, Satou kibi, Sau, Tebu, Te kaisoka, Te taiokeken, Tiwu, To, Tolo, Ukhu, Zuckerrohr, akh, akhu, asipatra, bhurirasa, cana, cana-de-açúcar, canne à sucre, caña de azúcar, caña dulce, cheraku, cheruku, dirghacchada, ganna, gheraku, gudamula, gániesi, ikh, ikha, ikshu, iksu, ik?u, ik?u (root stock), ik?u (stem), kabbu, karimpu, karumbu, karumbu ver, kuhiyare, kusiyar, naishkar, noble sugarcane, qasab el-sokkar, satangsusu, sato-kibi, serdi, sheradi, sherdi, sockerrör, sucrose, sugar cane, sugar cane|uk, sugar-cane, sugarcane, tisnak, t??arasa, us, ush, zukerrohr.
Found In
Africa, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh*, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caribbean, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Central America, China, Colombia, Congo DR, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Africa, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinée, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Hispaniola, Honduras, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mediterranean, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North America, Northeastern India, Pacific, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea*, PNG, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Reunion, Samoa, SE Asia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, St Lucia, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Uganda, USA, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Africa, West Indies, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Well-grown plants can become invasive[200 ].
Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Acer saccharumSugar Maple, Florida Maple, Hard Maple, Rock Maple42
Acer saccharum grandidentatumBig-Tooth Maple, Canyon Maple, Rocky Mountain Sugar Maple40
Acer saccharum nigrumBlack Maple41
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Subject : Saccharum officinarum  

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