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Ruta graveolens - L.                
Common Name Rue, Common rue, Herb of Grace, Garden Rue
Family Rutaceae
USDA hardiness 4-10
Known Hazards All parts of this plant are poisonous in large quantities[19]. It should not be used at all by pregnant women since it can induce abortions[165]. The sap contains furanocoumarins, sensitizing the skin to light and causing blistering or dermatitis in sensitive people[200].
Habitats Rocks, old walls and dry hills, mainly on limestone[89].
Range S. Europe.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early fall, Late summer. Form: Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of shrub
Ruta graveolens is an evergreen Shrub growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Ruta hortensis Mill.
Ruta graveolens Rue, Common rue, Herb of Grace, Garden Rue
Ruta graveolens Rue, Common rue, Herb of Grace, Garden Rue
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Ground Cover; Cultivated Beds; East Wall. In. South Wall. In. West Wall. In.
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Leaves.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Rutin;  Tea.

Leaves - raw or used as a seasoning[2, 7, 19, 21, 27, 89]. It is occasionally eaten in salads[4], but is strongly aromatic and slightly toxic, so should only be used in small quantities[7, 19, 148, 183]. The taste is strong and bitter[238]. The leaves contain rutin, which has a beneficial effect upon the circulatory system[218]. Some caution is advised, see notes on toxicity above. The leaves can be brewed into a tea[183].
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Abortifacient;  Anthelmintic;  Antidiarrhoeal;  Antidote;  Antiinflammatory;  Antispasmodic;  Carminative;  Emetic;  Emmenagogue;  Expectorant;  Haemostatic;  
Homeopathy;  Ophthalmic;  Rubefacient;  Stimulant;  Stomachic.

Rue has a long history of use as a domestic remedy, being especially valued for its strengthening action on the eyes[4]. The plant contains flavonoids (notably rutin) that reduce capillary fragility, which might explain the plants reputation as an eye strengthener[238]. Some caution is advised in its use internally, however, since in large doses it is toxic and it can also cause miscarriages[4, 7, 238]. The whole herb is abortifacient, anthelmintic, antidote, antispasmodic, carminative, emetic, emmenagogue, expectorant, haemostatic, ophthalmic, rubefacient, strongly stimulant, mildly stomachic and uterotonic[4, 7, 21, 165, 218]. The tops of fresh shoots are the most active medicinally, they should be gathered before the plant flowers and can be used fresh or dried[4]. An infusion is used in the treatment of hysterical affections, coughs, flatulence etc[4]. The juice of the plant has been used in treating earaches and chewing a leaf or two is said to quickly bring relief from giddiness, nervous headaches, palpitations etc[4]. An alkaloid found in the plant is abortifacient, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic[218]. A homeopathic remedy is obtained from the fresh herb, harvested in early summer shortly before flowering begins[232]. This is used in the treatment of a variety of complaints including eye strain, headache and sprains[232].
Other Uses
Dye;  Essential;  Repellent;  Strewing.

The growing or the dried plant can be used to repel insects, it is most useful when the plant is grown near roses and raspberries[4, 14, 18, 20, 148]. The dried herb can also be put in the linen cupboard to repel moths[14, 18]. The growing plant is also said to repel cats[20]. A red dye is obtained from the plant[148]. An essential oil is obtained from the leaves and young shoots, it is used in perfumery and as a food flavouring[61]. The plant was formerly used as a strewing herb[148]. Plants can be grown for ground cover when planted about 45cm apart each way[208]. They can be trimmed back in spring to keep them bushy[208].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Massing, Rock garden, Specimen. Succeeds in any soil but is hardier in a poor dry soil[4, 37, 200]. Prefers an open sunny position[7, 182]. Prefers a partially shaded sheltered dry position but succeeds in full sun[1, 4, 200]. Prefers a well-drained or rocky soil[200]. Likes some lime in the soil[11]. Established plants are drought tolerant[190]. Hardy to about -10°c, possibly to lower temperatures when it is grown in a dry soil[187]. Often cultivated as a culinary and medicinal herb, there are some named varieties[187]. The bruised leaves have a pleasant orange-like fragrance[245]. It is one of the most pleasant herbs to inhale[245]. Rue releases its scent in a remarkable way. The essential oil is contained in a cavity immediately beneath the surface of the leaf, above which is a thin layer of cells pierced by a cavity in the middle. The cells swell up and bend inwards, pressing on the essential oil beneath, which is driven to the surface of the leaf and there released[245]. Rue is a poor companion plant for many other species, growing badly with sage, cabbage and sweet basil[14, 18, 20, 201]. It is a good companion for roses and raspberries[201]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Edible, Not North American native, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers.
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[200], it can also be sown in early to mid spring in a cold frame[14, 27]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of young shoots in late spring[1]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200]. Very easy[K]. Layering in early summer. Old plants often self-layer[200].
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Expert comment                                         
Botanical References                                         
Links / References                                         
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment                                         
Elizabeth H.
Ana Fri Mar 10 2006
Where is the reproductive biology?And it's safe uses? its modern uses? findings of scientifical studies? experiments with it?
Elizabeth H.
Martha Griffith Sat Aug 5 2006
I was told by my massage therapist- this plants tablets are usefull for strenthinging muscles tendons and such- is this true? Thanks. martha.
Elizabeth H.
Afaq Ahmad (Delhi) Sat Dec 9 2006
what is the optimum fertilizer requirement for the crop on a large scale basis. in a city like delhi where the summers are very hot and the winter cool,so tell me about the irrigation requirements.
Elizabeth H.
Mon Aug 6 2007
Stay well away from it! Causes an unbearable itching on the skin, which seems to last forever!
Elizabeth H.
Mingxun Ren Wed Dec 5 2007
Are there any materials on flower biology or reproduction ecology of the plant Ruta graveolens ? Please tell me where can I find these materials or would you kindly seend me some materials My Email is: Thank you!
Elizabeth H.
gladys Mon Sep 29 2008
where can i find this plant in maryland? thanks,
Elizabeth H.
edy Sat Oct 11 2008
as a kid i was told it kept snakes at bay and my mom wud wrap some of the leaves in a muslin cloth and put it under our pillows dont know y she donr that, if anyone knows the answers please tell me
Elizabeth H.
do7a Thu Nov 12 2009
what is the active constituent in Ruta angustifolia
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Subject : Ruta graveolens  

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