We have over 100,000 visitors each month, but in the whole of 2013 less than £1,000 was raised from donations. We rely on donations and cannot continue to maintain our database and website unless this increases considerably in 2014. Please make a donation today. More information on our financial position >>>
Search Page Content
   Bookmark and Share
   
    By donating to PFAF, you can help support and expand our activities
    Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

Rubus idaeus - L.                
                 
Common Name Raspberry, American red raspberry, Grayleaf red raspberry
Family Rosaceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Moist neglected land, hedgerows and woodland edges[7, 11, 244].
Range Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain and temperate Asia.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: Green, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Spreading or horizontal, Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of shrub
Rubus idaeus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 1.5 m (5ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 11-Apr It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : 4-7


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Rubus idaeus Raspberry, American red raspberry, Grayleaf red raspberry


Rubus idaeus Raspberry, American red raspberry, Grayleaf red raspberry
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Root;  Stem.
Edible Uses: Coffee;  Tea.

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 5, 7, 61]. Delicious when eaten out of hand, the fruit is also used in pies, preserves etc[183]. Root - cooked. The root, which should be neither too young nor too old, requires a lot of boiling[7]. Young shoots - peeled and eaten raw or cooked like asparagus[172]. They are harvested as they emerge through the ground in the spring and whilst they are still tender. A herb tea is made from the dried leaves[21, 46, 183]. Another report says that a type of tea made from raspberry and blackberry leaves is an excellent coffee substitute[7].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiinflammatory;  Astringent;  Birthing aid;  Cardiac;  Decongestant;  Oxytoxic.

Antiemetic[13, 165]. The leaves and roots are anti-inflammatory, astringent, decongestant, ophthalmic, oxytocic and stimulant[4, 13, 165, 222, 254]. A tea made from them is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, as a tonic for the uterus to strengthen pregnant women, and as an aid in childbirth[4, 222, 257]. The tea has also been shown as effective in relieving painful menstrual cramps[222]. The active ingredients both stimulate and relax the uterus[222]. They can be used during the last three months of pregnancy and during childbirth, but should not be used earlier[238]. Externally, the leaves and roots are used as a gargle to treat tonsillitis and mouth inflammations, as a poultice and wash to treat sores, conjunctivitis, minor wounds, burns and varicose ulcers[238, 257]. The leaves are harvested in the summer and dried for later use[9]. The fruit is antiscorbutic and diuretic[7]. Fresh raspberry juice, mixed with a little honey, makes an excellent refrigerant beverage to be taken in the heat of a fever[21]. Made into a syrup, it is said to have a beneficial effect on the heart[21].
Other Uses
Cosmetic;  Dye;  Paper.

A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[168]. A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper[189]. The stems are harvested in the summer after the fruit has been eaten, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then hand beaten with mallets or ball milled for 3 hours. The paper is light brown in colour[189]. A decongestant face-mask made from the fruit is used cosmetically to soothe reddened skin[7].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Erosion control, Foundation, Ground cover, Massing, Rock garden, Seashore. Prefers a good deep well-drained loamy soil on the acid side[1, 34]. Dislikes very heavy soils[1, 200], light soils[4] and alkaline soils[200]. Prefers an open position but tolerates some shade[1]. Plants crop less well when grown in the shade of trees though they do well in the open on a north-facing slope[200]. Requires a position sheltered from strong winds[200]. Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5[200]. Raspberries are frequently cultivated in temperate regions of the world, both in the garden and commercially, for their edible fruit. There are many named varieties able to supply fresh fruit from mid-summer to the autumn[1, 200]. High costs of picking the fruit means that little is actually sold fresh, most of the commercially cultivated crops either being used for preserves or grown for the 'Pick Your Own' trade. All the cultivars are self-fertile[200]. This species has biennial stems, it produces a number of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit in their second year and then die[200]. It is best not to grow raspberries near blackberries or potatoes[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Not North American native, Attracts butterflies, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200]. Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[200].
Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

      You can download this page as a PDF

Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
L.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1117200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[5]Mabey. R. Food for Free.
Edible wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.
[7]Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[9]Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[13]Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[18]Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants.
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[21]Lust. J. The Herb Book.
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[34]Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants.
Good drawings of some of the more common food plants from around the world. Not much information though.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[165]Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
An excellent small herbal.
[168]Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants.
A very good and readable book on dyeing.
[172]Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest.
A nice guide to some useful plants in that area.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[189]Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking.
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[222]Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[244]Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs
Deals with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.
[254]Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Sarah Jumel Fri Feb 2 2007
People wanting to grow this in warmer climates can try Caroline, Dinkum, and Autumn Bliss. All fruited (in containers) for me in New Orleans.
Elizabeth H.
Boris Wed Jun 20 2007
You can eat the young leaves - raw or cooked -, too.
Elizabeth H.
Veronica Mon Jun 8 2009
This is the only remedy (pharmaceuticals included)that has ever eased my menstrual cramps in over 25 years.
QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.
2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.
3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.
Rate This Plant                                         
Please rate this plants for how successful you have found it to be. You will need to be logged in to do this. Our intention is not to create a list of 'popular' plants but rather to highlight plants that may be rare and unusual and that have been found to be useful by website users. This hopefully will encourage more people to use plants that they possibly would not have considered before.
     
                                                                                 
Add a comment/link                                         

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

Subject : Rubus idaeus  
             

Links To add a link to another website with useful info add the details here
Name of Site
URL of Site
Details