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Rhus integrifolia - (Nutt.)W.H.Brewer.&S.Watson.
                 
Common Name Lemonade Berry, Lemonade sumac
Family Anacardiaceae
USDA hardiness 8-10
Known Hazards There are some suggestions that the sap of this species can cause a skin rash in susceptible people, but this has not been substantiated. See also notes in 'Cultivation Details'.
Habitats Ocean bluffs, canyons and dry places below 800 metres[71], in sandy sterile soil[82]. Often forming close, impenetrable thickets[82].
Range South-western N. America - California.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Pink, White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.

Rhus integrifolia Lemonade Berry, Lemonade sumac


Rhus integrifolia Lemonade Berry, Lemonade sumac
J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of shrub
Rhus integrifolia is an evergreen Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft 7in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms

Habitats
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Oil.
Edible Uses: Coffee;  Drink;  Oil.

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 62, 82, 161]. The fruit is covered with a pleasant acid-tasting exudation that can be sucked[84, 92]. The fruit is small, up to 10mm in diameter[229], with very little flesh, but it is produced in fairly large panicles and so is easily harvested. When soaked for 10 - 30 minutes in hot or cold water it makes a very refreshing lemonade-like drink (without any fizz of course)[84, 94, 95]. The mixture should not be boiled since this will release tannic acids and make the drink astringent[183]. The leaves have been chewed to assuage thirst[257]. The roasted fruit is a coffee substitute.
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



None known
Other Uses
Dye;  Fuel;  Mordant;  Oil;  Tannin;  Wood.

The leaves are rich in tannin. They can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant[169]. An oil is extracted from the seeds[4]. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke[4]. Wood - hard, heavy[82]. It is valued and largely used as a fuel[82].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses: Erosion control, Hedge, Massing, Screen, Seashore, Superior hedge. Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun[11, 200]. Succeeds in a hot dry position. This species is not very hardy in Britain, it may not succeed outdoors even in the mildest areas of the country[200]. One report says they can tolerate temperatures down to about -5°c[260]. Older plants become somewhat hardier and so it is worthwhile growing them on for a few years in pots with some winter protection (such as a cold greenhouse)[K]. Some 4 year old plants were cut back to the base by temperatures below -5°c on our Cornish trial grounds, but they resprouted from the base in early summer[K]. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. Plants usually form thickets in the wild[229]. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds[200]. Plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus[11]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs[1, 4]. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists[200]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Special Features: North American native, Fragrant foliage, Naturalizing, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 - 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors[200]. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame[200]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. It might be wise to grow the plants on in pots for a few years before planting out - see notes in 'Cultivation Details'[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame[200]. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage[78, 200]. Suckers in late autumn to winter[200].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Rhus ambigua 00
Rhus aromaticaLemon Sumach, Fragrant sumac42
Rhus chinensisChinese Gall, Chinese sumac23
Rhus copallinaDwarf Sumach, Winged sumac, Flameleaf Sumac, Winged Sumac, Shining Sumac42
Rhus coriariaElm-Leaved Sumach, Sicilian sumac21
Rhus diversilobaWestern Poison Oak, Pacific poison oak02
Rhus glabraSmooth Sumach43
Rhus microphyllaDesert Sumach, Littleleaf sumac20
Rhus ovataSugar Bush, Sugar sumac21
Rhus potaninii 02
Rhus punjabensis 32
Rhus punjabensis sinica 32
Rhus radicansPoison Ivy01
Rhus sempervirens 21
Rhus succedaneaWax Tree12
Rhus sylvestris 00
Rhus toxicodendronEastern Poison Oak02
Rhus trichocarpa 00
Rhus trilobataSkunk Bush, Basketbush, Squawbush, Three Leaf Sumac42
Rhus typhinaStag's Horn Sumach, Velvet Sumac, Staghorn Sumac42
Rhus vernixPoison Sumach01
Rhus wallichii 01
Rhus x pulvinata 42
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Author
(Nutt.)W.H.Brewer.&S.Watson.
Botanical References
1171200
Links / References
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Subject : Rhus integrifolia  

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