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Quercus rubra - L.
                 
Common Name Red Oak, Northern red oak
Family Fagaceae
USDA hardiness 3-7
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Dry or upland woods[43]. Found in a variety of soils, it grows best in those that are deep and fine textured, and the largest trees are found in protected ravines or on sheltered slopes[229].
Range Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Oklahoma and Minnesota.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary

Quercus rubra Red Oak, Northern red oak


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jean-Pol_GRANDMONT
Quercus rubra Red Oak, Northern red oak
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Ala_z
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Quercus rubra is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 18 m (59ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms
Q. borealis. Q. digitata.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.

Seed - cooked[161, 177, 257]. A staple food for several native North American Indian tribes[257]. Up to 3cm long[200]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost[183]. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antidiarrhoeal;  Antiseptic;  Antiviral;  Astringent;  Cancer;  Emetic;  Febrifuge;  Salve;  
Tonic.

The bark and inner bark is antiseptic, astringent, emetic, febrifuge and tonic[257]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, indigestion, asthma, severe coughs, hoarseness, intermittent fevers, bleeding etc[222, 257]. Externally, it is used as a wash for skin eruptions, rashes, burns etc[222, 257]. The bark can be chewed as a treatment for mouth sores[257]. The bark contains tannins, experimentally these have been shown to be antiviral, antiseptic, anticancer and also carcinogenic[222]. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[4].
Other Uses
Dye;  Repellent;  Tannin;  Wood.

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[20]. Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[4]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[82, 171]. A reddish-brown dye can be obtained from the bark[257]. Wood - coarse-grained, hard, strong, heavy, not durable[46, 82, 171, 226]. It weighs 41lb per cubic foot[235]. An important lumber source in America, it is highly valued for flooring, furniture, veneer, construction etc[46, 82, 171, 226].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[11]. Lime tolerant[188]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[200]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[200]. Prefers a hotter summer than is usually experienced in Britain[200], but trees still grow well in Britain[11, 200]. A fairly fast-growing tree[188], it is cultivated for its timber in C. Europe. Trees normally require 20 - 25 years to reach flowering size, and may take another 20 years before heavy crops of seed are produced[229]. Seed production is cyclic, heavy crops being produced every 2 - 5 years in the wild[229]. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed taking two summers to ripen[229]. Trees are able to regenerate from root suckers if the top is killed by a forest fire[226]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[11]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[11]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

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Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Quercus acutaJapanese Evergreen Oak22
Quercus acutissimaSawthorn Oak22
Quercus agrifoliaEncina, California live oak, Coast Live Oak32
Quercus albaWhite Oak, Hybrid oak32
Quercus alienaOriental White Oak22
Quercus aucheriBoz-Pirnal Oak42
Quercus bicolorSwamp White Oak42
Quercus cerrisTurkey Oak, European turkey oak32
Quercus chrysolepisLive Oak, Canyon live oak22
Quercus cocciferaKermes Oak32
Quercus coccineaScarlet Oak22
Quercus dentataJapanese Emperor Oak, Daimyo oak22
Quercus douglasiiBlue Oak32
Quercus durataCalifornia Scrub Oak, Leather oak22
Quercus ellipsoidalisNorthern Pin Oak22
Quercus emoryiBlack Oak, Emory oak32
Quercus engelmanniiEvergreen Oak, Engelmann oak, Mesa Oak22
Quercus falcataSouthern Red Oak, Cherrybark Oak, Spanish Oak, Southern Red Oak12
Quercus floribunda 22
Quercus frainettoHungarian Oak, Italian Oak, Forest Green Oak42
Quercus fruticosa 32
Quercus gambeliiShin Oak, Gambel oak, Rocky Mountain White Oak32
Quercus garryanaOregon White Oak, Garry Oak22
Quercus glaucaRing-cup oak , Ring Cupped Oak, Blue Japanese Oak32
Quercus hispanica 32
Quercus ilexHolly Oak, Evergreen Oak52
Quercus ilex ballotaHolm Oak52
Quercus imbricariaShingle Oak, Northern Laurel Oak22
Quercus infectoriaAleppo Oak, Oak22
Quercus ithaburensis macrolepisValonia Oak42
123
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Expert comment
 
Author
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Botanical References
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Links / References
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Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Ben Gaia Fri Jan 27 2006
Love this oak, grows fast, great colour, great timber, great shade, hardy as hell. dialatree.co.nz

dialatree NZ based organic plants site

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Subject : Quercus rubra  

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