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Quercus macrocarpa - Michx.
                 
Common Name Burr Oak, Mossy Cup Oak
Family Fagaceae
USDA hardiness 3-8
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Found in a variety of habitats from dry hillsides to moist bottomlands, rich woods and fertile slopes, mainly on limestone soils[43, 229].
Range Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Manitoba, Wyoming, Massachusetts, Georgia, Kansas and Texas.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Brown. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded, Spreading or horizontal.

Quercus macrocarpa Burr Oak, Mossy Cup Oak


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jean-Pol_GRANDMONT
Quercus macrocarpa Burr Oak, Mossy Cup Oak
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jean-Pol_GRANDMONT
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Quercus macrocarpa is a deciduous Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Synonyms
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses:

Seed - cooked[101, 105, 161, 257]. Very large, the seed can be up to 5cm x 4cm[82, 200], though it is somewhat variable in size and shape[227]. The seed can be ground into a powder and used in making bread, dumplings etc and as a thickener in soups[183]. The seed of this species is considered to be one of the most palatable of all the oaks[159, 183]. Many trees have sweet seeds with little tannin and the seed can be eaten raw or cooked. If the seed is bitter then this is due to the presence of tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the dried and ground up seed in water, though many minerals will also be lost. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.
Medicinal Uses


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Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Tonic.

The bark is astringent and tonic[61]. An infusion has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea[257]. A decoction of the root or inner bark has been used in the treatment of cramps[257]. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[4].
Other Uses
Mordant;  Repellent;  Tannin;  Wood.

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[20]. Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[4]. The bark has been used as a mordant for fixing dyes[257]. Wood - hard, heavy, strong, tough, very durable, close grained. It weighs about 46lb per cubic metre[227]. Of considerable importance as a timber tree, it is used for all types of construction, in making baskets, flooring, cabinet making, ship building etc[46, 61, 82, 149, 171, 227, 229]. It is also a good fuel[82].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Firewood, Pest tolerant, Aggressive surface roots possible, Specimen. Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[11]. Lime tolerant[188]. Succeeds in a hot dry position. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[200]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[200]. A slow-growing tree[188]. Established plants are drought resistant[229] and tolerant of atmospheric pollution[226]. Trees have a thick, fire-resistant bark[274]. Occasionally cultivated for its edible seed, there are some named varieties[183]. Slow growing in the wild, it takes about 30 years to start producing seed, though it then continues to crop for the next 200 - 300 years with large crops being produced every 2 - 3 years[229]. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[200, 229]. Prefers warmer summers than are usually experienced in Britain, often growing poorly in this country and failing to properly ripen its wood, resulting in frost damage overwinter[11, 200]. A tree at the Hillier Arboretum in Hampshire was growing well in September 1993. It was 9 metres tall but had a lot of mildew, there was no sign of seeds[K]. There is a dwarf form of this species:- Q. macrocarpa depressa (Nutt.)Engelm. grows about 2 metres tall with corky branches and smaller seeds than the species, usually about 1cm long[227]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features:North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[11]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Quercus acutaJapanese Evergreen Oak22
Quercus acutissimaSawthorn Oak22
Quercus agrifoliaEncina, California live oak, Coast Live Oak32
Quercus albaWhite Oak, Hybrid oak32
Quercus alienaOriental White Oak22
Quercus aucheriBoz-Pirnal Oak42
Quercus bicolorSwamp White Oak42
Quercus cerrisTurkey Oak, European turkey oak32
Quercus chrysolepisLive Oak, Canyon live oak22
Quercus cocciferaKermes Oak32
Quercus coccineaScarlet Oak22
Quercus dentataJapanese Emperor Oak, Daimyo oak22
Quercus douglasiiBlue Oak32
Quercus durataCalifornia Scrub Oak, Leather oak22
Quercus ellipsoidalisNorthern Pin Oak22
Quercus emoryiBlack Oak, Emory oak32
Quercus engelmanniiEvergreen Oak, Engelmann oak, Mesa Oak22
Quercus falcataSouthern Red Oak, Cherrybark Oak, Spanish Oak, Southern Red Oak12
Quercus floribunda 22
Quercus frainettoHungarian Oak, Italian Oak, Forest Green Oak42
Quercus fruticosa 32
Quercus gambeliiShin Oak, Gambel oak, Rocky Mountain White Oak32
Quercus garryanaOregon White Oak, Garry Oak22
Quercus glaucaRing-cup oak , Ring Cupped Oak, Blue Japanese Oak32
Quercus hispanica 32
Quercus ilexHolly Oak, Evergreen Oak52
Quercus ilex ballotaHolm Oak52
Quercus imbricariaShingle Oak, Northern Laurel Oak22
Quercus infectoriaAleppo Oak, Oak22
Quercus ithaburensis macrolepisValonia Oak42
123
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Subject : Quercus macrocarpa  

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