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Primula vulgaris - Huds.
                 
Common Name Primrose, Common Primrose, English Primrose
Family Primulaceae
USDA hardiness 5-10
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Woods and hedgerows on acid and calcareous soils[4, 17]. Also found in the open on north-facing slopes in south-western England[31].
Range Western Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Lavender, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.

Primula vulgaris Primrose, Common Primrose, English Primrose


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Fornax
Primula vulgaris Primrose, Common Primrose, English Primrose
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Pokrajac
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Primula vulgaris is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Dec to May, and the seeds ripen from Apr to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Synonyms
P. acaulis.
Habitats
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover; Meadow; Hedgerow;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Young leaves - raw or cooked as a potherb, added to soups etc[2, 177, 183]. A mild flavour, though the texture is a bit tough[K]. The leaves are often available all through the winter[K]. Flowers - raw or cooked. They make an attractive garnish to salads[4, 183, 238, K], and can also be used as a cooked vegetable or in conserves etc[4, 183]. Picked when first opened, the flowers are fermented with water and sugar to make a very pleasant and intoxicating wine[2]. Both the flowers and the leaves can be made into a syrup or a tea[183].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anodyne;  Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Emetic;  Sedative;  Vermifuge.

Primroses have a very long history of medicinal use and has been particularly employed in treating conditions involving spasms, cramps, paralysis and rheumatic pains[238]. They are, however, considered to be less effective than the related P. veris[238]. The plant contains saponins, which have an expectorant effect, and salicylates which are the main ingredient of aspirin and have anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge effects[238]. This remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women, patients who are sensitive to aspirin, or those taking anti-coagulant drugs such as warfarin[238]. The roots and the flowering herb are anodyne, antispasmodic, astringent, emetic, sedative and vermifuge[4]. An infusion of the roots is a good remedy against nervous headaches[4]. The roots are harvested in the autumn when two or three years old and dried for later use[4]. An ointment has been made from the plant and used for treating skin wounds[244].
Other Uses
Makes a good carpet in open woodland and on woodland edges[24, 31]. Plants are best spaced about 35cm apart each way[208].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Container, Ground cover, Rock garden, Woodland garden. Prefers a medium to heavy moisture retentive humus rich loam in a cool position with light to medium shade[200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are hardy to about -25°c[187]. A very ornamental plant, there are many named varieties[187]. The blooms have a characteristic fragrance of a mossy bank or a deciduous woodland[245]. This species hybridizes readily with P. elatior[17]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Edible, Fragrant foliage, Not North American native, Naturalizing, Suitable for dried flowers, Fragrant flowers.
Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[133]. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame[1]. Germination is inhibited by temperatures above 20°c[200]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in autumn. This is best done every other year[200].
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Anagallis arvensisScarlet Pimpernel22
Androsace sarmentosaRock Jasmine02
Cyclamen hederifoliumCyclamen, Alpine Violet, Persian Violet01
Dodecatheon hendersoniiSailor-Caps, Mosquito bills10
Glaux maritimaBlack Saltwort, Sea milkwort21
Hottonia palustrisWater Violet01
Lysimachia barystachysManchurian yellow loosestrife10
Lysimachia christiniaeJin Qian Cao02
Lysimachia clethroidesGooseneck Loosestrife, Gooseneck yellow loosestrife, Japanese Loosestrife, Shepherd's Crook10
Lysimachia eleutheroides 30
Lysimachia foenum-graecumLing Xiang Cao01
Lysimachia fortunei 10
Lysimachia nemorumYellow Pimpernel01
Lysimachia nummulariaCreeping Jenny, Moneywort, Creeping Charlie12
Lysimachia paridiformis 02
Lysimachia quadrifoliaWhorled Yellow Loosestrife11
Lysimachia sikokiana 01
Lysimachia vulgarisYellow Loosestrife, Garden yellow loosestrife12
Primula auricula 01
Primula denticulataDrumstick Primula20
Primula elatiorOxlip22
Primula involucrata 02
Primula macrophylla 02
Primula parryiParry's primrose00
Primula reticulata 01
Primula sieboldii 10
Primula verisCowslip, Cowslip primrose33
Samolus valerandiBrookweed, Seaside brookweed21
Samolus valerandi parviflorusThin-Leaf Brookweed, seaside brookweed10
12
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Expert comment
 
Author
Huds.
Botanical References
17200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Sun Aug 24 2008
I've just found this on the BBC site, and it gives flowering time as March to May, which seems a lot more likely.
Elizabeth H.
tiggsy Sun Aug 24 2008
Is the flowering period given accurate? I don't see how seeds can ripen from april to august, if the flowers are on between December and May. Surely it should be April to December?
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Subject : Primula vulgaris  

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