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Populus nigra - L.
                 
Common Name Black Poplar, Lombardy poplar
Family Salicaceae
USDA hardiness 3-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Moist ground in woods and by streams[9, 17].
Range Central and southern Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean, temperate Asia to the Himalayas.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Red. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Columnar.

Populus nigra Black Poplar, Lombardy poplar


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Koeh-112.jpg
Populus nigra Black Poplar, Lombardy poplar
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Populus nigra is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in June. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark.
Edible Uses:

Inner bark - dried, ground then added to flour and used for making bread etc[2]. A famine food, used when all else fails[177].
Medicinal Uses


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Alterative;  Anodyne;  Antiinflammatory;  Astringent;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Febrifuge;  
Salve;  Stimulant;  Tonic;  Vulnerary.

The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste[4, 213]. They also contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body[213]. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, salve, stimulant, tonic and vulnerary[4, 9, 21, 165, 238]. They are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections, stomach and kidney disorders[4, 238]. They should not be prescribed to patients who are sensitive to aspirin[238]. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pain and dry skin conditions[238]. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages[213]. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are dried for later use[238]. The stem bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diuretic and tonic[14, 46, 61, 178, 218]. The bark contains salicylates, from which the proprietary medicine aspirin is derived[238]. It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, lower back pains, urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps[14, 46, 61, 178, 213, 238]. Externally, the bark is used to treat chilblains, haemorrhoids, infected wounds and sprains[238]. The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use[238].
Other Uses
Cork;  Rooting hormone;  Shelterbelt;  Wood.

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day[172]. A fast growing tree, it is often used to provide a quick screen or windbreak[200]. The cultivar 'Italica' is commonly used for this purpose though it is not a very suitable choice because it has fragile branches and is prone to basal rots which can cause sudden collapse[200]. The cultivar 'Plantierensis' is much more suitable[200]. A resin obtained from the buds is made into a salve and used in home remedies[46]. The bark is used as a cork substitute for floats etc[115]. Wood - very soft, very light, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, easy to work, very resistant to abrasion. Used for lower quality purposes[11, 46, 61, 115, 227].
Cultivation details
Agroforestry Services: Living trellis;  Agroforestry Services: Windbreak;  Fodder: Bank;  Historic Crop;  Industrial Crop: Biomass;  Management: Coppice;  Management: Standard;  Other Systems: Irreg. Intercrop;  Other Systems: SRC;  Other Systems: Strip intercrop.

A very easily grown plant, it does well in a heavy cold damp soil[1]. Prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain[11, 200]. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils[11]. It is fairly wind tolerant, though it does not do well in exposed upland sites, or in maritime exposure[11, K]. It dislikes shade and is intolerant of root or branch competition[200]. A fast-growing tree, reaching maturity in about 100 years and declining thereafter[186]. There are several named varieties that have been selected mainly for their ornamental value[11]. The leaf buds, as they swell in the spring, and the young leaves have a pleasing fragrance of balsam[245]. The fragrance is especially pronounced as the leaves unfold[245]. Very tolerant of hard pruning, the trees have often been pollarded in the past[186]. Plants seldom produce suckers[186]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterfly[30]. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building's foundations by drying out the soil[11]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Special Features:Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring[113]. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening[200]. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing[11]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 20 - 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy. Suckers in early spring[78]. This species rarely produces suckers[238].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Populus albaWhite Poplar12
Populus angustifoliaNarrowleaf Cottonwood12
Populus 'Balsam Spire'Tacatricho 3203
Populus balsamiferaBalsam Poplar, Black cottonwood13
Populus ciliataHimalayan Poplar02
Populus deltoidesEastern Cottonwood, Plains cottonwood, Rio Grande cottonwood, Necklace Poplar22
Populus deltoides moniliferaPlains Cottonwood12
Populus deltoides wislizeniiRio Grande Cottonwood21
Populus euphratica 01
Populus fremontiiCottonwood, Fremont cottonwood, Fremont Poplar, Western Cottonwood12
Populus grandidentataCanadian Aspen, Bigtooth aspen11
Populus heterophyllaSwamp Cottonwood01
Populus maximowicziiDoronoki, Japanese poplar01
Populus pseudosimonii 11
Populus sieboldiiJapanese Aspen11
Populus simoniiSimon poplar, Chinese Poplar11
Populus tremulaAspen Poplar, European aspen, Aspen12
Populus tremuloidesAmerican Aspen - Poplar, Quaking aspen13
Populus trichocarpaWestern Balsam Poplar, Black cottonwood13
Populus x canadensisCanadian Poplar, Carolina Poplar01
Populus x canescensGrey Poplar01
Populus x jackiiBalm Of Gilead03
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
1117200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
nadjet Mon Apr 21 2008
je voudrai des articles scientifiques ayant tester les activité biologique du peuplier noir
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Subject : Populus nigra  

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