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Pinus wallichiana - A.B.Jacks.
                 
Common Name Himalayan Blue Pine, Bhutan pine, Himalayan Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 5-7
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats The dominant species in drier areas, it is also found in secondary forest in wetter areas to 4300 metres[51].
Range E. Asia - Himalayas from Afghanistan to S.E. Tibet.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Pink, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Pyramidal.

Pinus wallichiana Himalayan Blue Pine, Bhutan pine, Himalayan  Pine


http://www.flickr.com/photos/soham_pablo/
Pinus wallichiana Himalayan Blue Pine, Bhutan pine, Himalayan  Pine
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nova
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus wallichiana is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms
P. chylla. P. excelsa. non Lamb. P. griffithii. non Parl.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Manna;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed - raw or cooked[183]. It has a very resinous flavour and so is not much relished[158]. The seed is quite small, to 7mm long[200]. The honeydew from aphid infested leaves is eaten as a manna[51, 146, 158]. Another report says that a manna-like substance that exudes from the leaves and twigs is eaten or used like honey[183]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Rubefacient;  Stimulant;  Vermifuge.

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4]. The wood is diaphoretic and stimulant[240]. It is useful in treating burning of the body, cough, fainting and ulcers[240].
Other Uses
Dye;  Fuel;  Herbicide;  Lighting;  Pitch;  Shelterbelt;  Stuffing;  Wood.

A commercial source of turpentine and tar. It is said to be superior to P. roxburghii but not produced so freely[64, 146, 158]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The leaves are used as a stuffing for pillows etc[158]. A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Wood - moderately hard, durable, highly resinous. Used in construction, carpentry etc[46, 51, 146, 158, 272]. A good firewood but it gives off a pungent resinous smoke[51]. The wood is rich in resin. It can be splintered and used as a torch[145, 158].
Cultivation details
Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon;  Management: Standard;  Regional Crop.

Landscape Uses:Specimen. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils or shade[1, 11]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. Prefers sandy or clay soils rather than limestone[146]. A very hardy but relatively short-lived tree in cultivation[11]. The Himalayan blue pine succeeds in exposed positions but it looks much better when grown in a sheltered position[11, 81]. It is a very fast growing tree when young, with new shoots up to 1metre long per year[11] and 30 year old trees 20 metres tall. New growth takes place from April to mid-July[185]. Growth in height diminishes rapidly when trees are 25 metres tall, probably due to their dislike of exposure at that height[185]. Cultivated for timber in Italy[50]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Cones open and shed their seed whilst still on the tree[1]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].

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Other Names
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Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
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123
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Expert comment
 
Author
A.B.Jacks.
Botanical References
1151200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Håkan Althén Sun Jan 9 15:40:52 2005
I grow Pinus wallichiana on a small island in the archipelago outside Stockholm, Sweden. The tree has proven to be hardier than USDA zon 8.
Elizabeth H.
M Grant Tue Jul 7 2009
My Pinus Wallichiana (UK) has been plagued for the past 3 yrs by caterpillars that attack the tree itself!!!! I find this hard to believe. The result is loss of pine needles. The caterpillars drop off the ends of the needles and make their way across the lawn to the washing line and patio furniture where they climb up!!!! We now catch these 'pests' (not been able to identify them) and take them to an open field. Can you help?
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Subject : Pinus wallichiana  

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