homebanner homebanner homebanner homebanner homebanner homebanner
Pinus roxburghii - Sarg.
                 
Common Name Chir Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 8-11
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Forms extensive forests to 2700 metres[51]. Does best on north slopes or on good soils[146].
Range E. Asia - Himalayas from Afghanistan to Bhutan.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary

Pinus roxburghii Chir Pine


http://www.flickr.com/people/35489169@N05
Pinus roxburghii Chir Pine
www.flickr.com/photos/sanjoy
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus roxburghii is an evergreen Tree growing to 40 m (131ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in April. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
P. longifolia. non Salisb.
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Manna;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed - raw or cooked[51, 63, 158, 183, 272]. Not very nice, it has a strong flavour of turpentine[105] and is only eaten as an emergency food[177]. A reasonable size, the seed is up to 11mm long[200]. A sweet edible manna exudes from the bark and twigs[177, 183]. It is actually a gum[177]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Rubefacient;  Stimulant;  Vermifuge.

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4]. The wood is diaphoretic and stimulant[240]. It is useful in treating burning of the body, cough, fainting and ulcers[240].
Other Uses
Charcoal;  Dye;  Herbicide;  Ink;  Lighting;  Resin;  Wood.

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. A resin is obtained from the sapwood[51, 64, 158]. Trees are tapped for three years and then rested for three years[146]. The yield is up to 5.5 kilos per tree[146]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The wood is very resinous and can be splintered and used as a torch[145]. A charcoal made from the leaves, mixed with rice water, is used as an ink[146]. Wood - moderately hard. Used for construction, shingles, boxes etc. It is useful in cold climates but is not resistant to white ants[46, 146, 266].
Cultivation details
Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Succeeds on calcareous soils[11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1]. Dislikes shade[146]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. The chir pine is not very hardy in Britain, succeeding outdoors only in the mildest areas of the country[11, 81]. In the driest parts of its native range the leaves are shed after 10 - 11 months, making it deciduous[200]. Trees are extensively tapped for their resin in India[64] and are the main source of resin in that region[11]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. This species is closely related to P. canariensis[200]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Acinos alpinusAlpine Calamint11
Carpinus betulusHornbeam, European hornbeam, Common Hornbeam, European Hornbeam02
Carpinus carolinianaAmerican Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, American Hornbeam11
Carpinus cordata 00
Carpinus laxiflora 00
Lupinus albusWhite Lupin41
Lupinus albus graecus 40
Lupinus angustifoliusBlue Lupin, Narrowleaf lupine40
Lupinus arboreusTree Lupin, Yellow bush lupine00
Lupinus hirsutus 20
Lupinus littoralisSeashore Lupine20
Lupinus luteusYellow Lupin, European yellow lupine30
Lupinus mutabilisPearl Lupin, Tarwi50
Lupinus nootkatensisBlue Lupine, Nootka lupine30
Lupinus perennisSundial Lupine31
Lupinus polyphyllusBig-Leaf Lupin, Lupine11
Lupinus tauris 00
Lupinus termisWhite Lupin20
Phyllocladus alpinusAlpine Celery Pine00
Pinus albicaulisWhite-Bark Pine42
Pinus aristataBristle-Cone Pine22
Pinus armandiiChinese White Pine, Armand pine42
Pinus ayacahuiteMexican White Pine22
Pinus banksianaJack Pine22
Pinus bungeanaLace-Bark Pine, Bunge's pine32
Pinus californiarum 12
Pinus cembraSwiss Stone Pine, Swiss Pine, Arolla Pine42
Pinus cembra sibiricaSiberian Pine42
Pinus cembroidesMexican Pine Nut, Pinyon Pine42
Pinus cembroides orizabensisMexican Pine Nut42
123
Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

      You can download this page as a PDF

Expert comment
 
Author
Sarg.
Botanical References
1151200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
raj kumar Sun Aug 30 2009
can the needles be used for any other purpose like heat generation or for charcoal etc. becuse the needeles are fire prone and almost every year the forest haveing these trees caught fire
QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.
2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.
3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.
Add a comment/link

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

Subject : Pinus roxburghii  

Plant Uses

Edible Uses
Medicinal Uses
Other Plant uses
Woodland Gardening
Why Perennial Plants?
Top Edible Plants
Top Medicinal Plants
Garden Design
Habitats
Translations

Content

Content Help
Bookshop
Support Us
Blog
Links
Old Database Search
Suppliers
Contact
About Us
News
Sign In

PFAF Newsletter

Stay informed about PFAFs progress,
challenges and hopes by signing up for
our free email newsletter. You will receive
a range of benefits including:
* Important announcements and news
* Exclusive content not on the website
* Updates on new information &
functionality of the website & database

We will not sell or share your email address.
You can unsubscribe at anytime.