New Book ** Edible Perennials: 50 Top perennials from Plants For A Future. Current interest in forest or woodland garden designs reflects an awareness that permanent mixed plantings are inherently more sustainable than annual monocultures. They safeguard and enrich soil ecosystems... more >>

  
   
    By donating to PFAF, you can help support and expand our activities
    Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List
Pinus pinea - L.
                 
Common Name Italian Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine, Stone Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 7-11
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Maritime sands and alluvium[89].
Range S. Europe around the Mediterranean.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded, Vase.

Pinus pinea Italian Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine, Stone Pine


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pinus_pinea1.jpg
Pinus pinea Italian Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine, Stone Pine
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:JoJan
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus pinea is an evergreen Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in April. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed - raw or cooked[1, 2, 4, 11, 34, 63]. Rich in oil, the seed has a soft texture with a hint of resin in the flavour. It makes a delicious snack and can also be used as a staple food[K]. The seeds are often added to ice cream, cakes, puddings etc[183]. They can also be ground into a powder and used as a thickener and flavouring in soups etc[K]. The seed is a good size, up to 20mm x 10mm, and is a major source of pine nuts in commerce[200]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200]. Young pine cones can be ground into a powder and used as a flavouring.[183]
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4].
Other Uses
Dye;  Herbicide;  Resin;  Wood.

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Yields a resin and turpentine[57, 64, 171]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood. Used for carpentry, furniture making etc[100].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Aggressive surface roots possible, Screen, Seashore, Specimen. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1] and shady positions[160]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. Succeeds in a chalky soil[11]. This species is hardy to about -18°c[160]. Although sometimes thought to be somewhat tender in this country, it is perfectly hardy as far north as south-east Scotland[185]. The trees transplant very badly if they are allowed to stay in one position for more than 2 years. This is usually a short-lived tree, rarely surviving for much more than 100 years[185]. The Italian stone pine is extensively planted for its edible seeds in Europe[81, 200]. The variety 'Fragilis' has thin shelled seeds and is the form most widely cultivated[200]. Trees take between 10 and 20 years to produce cones from seed[160]. One of our plants produced its first young female cone when 7 years old, though this did not mature because it was not fertilised[K]. A 20 year old plant at Kew was about 4.5 metres tall with a number of trunks and had more than 15 mature cones[K]. A very old specimen at Kew was carrying lots of 1st and 2nd year cones in July 1996[K]. The cones ripen in their third year and can then remain unopened on the tree for several years[1, 81, 200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. This species does not hybridize with other members of this genus[117]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Acinos alpinusAlpine Calamint11
Carpinus betulusHornbeam, European hornbeam, Common Hornbeam, European Hornbeam02
Carpinus carolinianaAmerican Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, American Hornbeam11
Carpinus cordata 00
Carpinus laxiflora 00
Lupinus albusWhite Lupin41
Lupinus albus graecus 40
Lupinus angustifoliusBlue Lupin, Narrowleaf lupine40
Lupinus arboreusTree Lupin, Yellow bush lupine00
Lupinus hirsutus 20
Lupinus littoralisSeashore Lupine20
Lupinus luteusYellow Lupin, European yellow lupine30
Lupinus mutabilisPearl Lupin, Tarwi50
Lupinus nootkatensisBlue Lupine, Nootka lupine30
Lupinus perennisSundial Lupine31
Lupinus polyphyllusBig-Leaf Lupin, Lupine11
Lupinus tauris 00
Lupinus termisWhite Lupin20
Phyllocladus alpinusAlpine Celery Pine00
Pinus albicaulisWhite-Bark Pine42
Pinus aristataBristle-Cone Pine22
Pinus armandiiChinese White Pine, Armand pine42
Pinus ayacahuiteMexican White Pine22
Pinus banksianaJack Pine22
Pinus bungeanaLace-Bark Pine, Bunge's pine32
Pinus californiarum 12
Pinus cembraSwiss Stone Pine, Swiss Pine, Arolla Pine42
Pinus cembra sibiricaSiberian Pine42
Pinus cembroidesMexican Pine Nut, Pinyon Pine42
Pinus cembroides orizabensisMexican Pine Nut42
123
Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

      You can download this page as a PDF

Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
11200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Laurel Davar Thu May 13 03:29:31 2004
I found this information very useful, but would be grateful for a step by step way to propagate these trees from seeds for the climate of central California. I have seeds from one cone but would appreciate knowing a seed source in the US is case I am not successful with the seeds I now have. Thank you. Laurel Davar ljdavar@aol.com
Elizabeth H.
Nancy Hubbert Wed Mar 1 2006
I have started seeds from 2 different sources. The seedlings from one look like upside-down umbrellas whereas those from the other source came up sort of like carrots. Are these both P. pinea of different subspecies?
Elizabeth H.
WILLIAM CULLINANE Fri Mar 3 2006
I HAVE 100 ACRES OF PINES PLANTED IN 2000 WHEN SHOULD I EXPECT TO HARVEST CONES
Elizabeth H.
dg hicks Fri Mar 10 2006
Cultivation details in this article are incorrect for this species: pinus pinea does not require a period of cold stratification, simply a 24 hour soak in water, followed by planting out. Germination rates with this technique approach 90%. Regarding the question of seedling appearance, the 'upside down umbrella' description fits the species. Time to harvest nuts from pinus pinea is about 30 years. For a reliable source of seed, check out JL Hudson seeds.
Elizabeth H.
Simon Purser Sat Feb 21 2009
We planted 45,000 pinus pinea trees for nut production between 2001 and 2006. Although growing well, they are yet to produce cones. The following website we found very useful. They grow in pretty much any soil except marsh. Most of ours are in clay. If you have any queries my email is purser@arc.net.au, cheers Simon Purser http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/newslett/ncnl6153.htm

Newcrops Pinus Pinea: an edible nut pine of many uses

Alex B.
Sep 25 2011 12:00AM
I was looking for information on when to harvest the seeds. We have trees growing around the place where I live and would be great if I could now what is the best time to go out and harvest the seeds they produce. Alex
Au T.
Mar 27 2013 12:00AM
Anyone growing Pinus pinea in South Carolina? I grow a couple dozen in pots and only 7 in the ground so far, just planted the 7 small ones (foot tall) in my yard in Nov. 2012. I suppose they will start growing in late spring. Half of Italian Stone Pines in the pots died. They are probably picky towards soil or watering.
frann L.
Pinus pinea is listed by this nurseryman as tolerant of maritime exposure. Jan 7 2015 12:00AM
Alba Trees lists this as being tolerant of maritime exposure, and as there are numerous images of it growing near the sea which can be found by Googling "Pinus pinea y the sea", I think this is incorrect and should be changed.
Alba Trees
QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.
2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.
3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.
Add a comment/link

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

Subject : Pinus pinea  
 

Plant Uses

Edible Uses
Medicinal Uses
Other Plant uses
Woodland Gardening
Why Perennial Plants?
Top Edible Plants
Top Medicinal Plants
Garden Design
Habitats
Translations

Content

Content Help
Bookshop
Support Us
Blog
Links
Suppliers
Contact
About Us
News
Sign In

PFAF Newsletter

Stay informed about PFAFs progress,
challenges and hopes by signing up for
our free email newsletter. You will receive
a range of benefits including:
* Important announcements and news
* Exclusive content not on the website
* Updates on new information &
functionality of the website & database

We will not sell or share your email address.
You can unsubscribe at anytime.