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Pinus monophylla - Torr.&Frém.
                 
Common Name Single Leaf Piñon, Single Leaf PinyonPine, Stone Pine, Pine Pinyon
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 6-8
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Arid slopes at low elevations[120], growing in pinyon-juniper woodlands[229]. Often forms extensive open forests at elevations of 1500 - 2100 metres[82].
Range Western N. America - Utah to Nevada, Arizona and California.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Red, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Pyramidal, Rounded.

Pinus monophylla Single Leaf Piñon, Single Leaf PinyonPine, Stone Pine,  Pine Pinyon


http://www.flickr.com/photos/cwsteeds/
Pinus monophylla Single Leaf Piñon, Single Leaf PinyonPine, Stone Pine,  Pine Pinyon
http://www.flickr.com/photos/cwsteeds/
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus monophylla is an evergreen Tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a slow rate.It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
P. cembroides monophylla.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed - raw or cooked[1, 82, 161, 257]. Oily, with an agreeable almond-like flavour[2, 229], they are often used in sweetmeats, pastries, etc. They are the lowest in protein and fats and the highest in starch of the piñons[183, 200]. The seeds are an important food source for the local Indians of Nevada and California[82]. A good size, the seed is up to 20mm long[200] and has a thin shell[229]. The pitch obtained from the trunk is allowed to harden and is then used as a chewing gum[257]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic;  Contraceptive;  Diuretic;  Laxative;  Plaster;  Poultice;  Salve;  Skin;  
Vermifuge.

Single leaf piñon was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and vulnerary properties and also for its beneficial effect on the respiratory system[257]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints, and is used both internally and externally to treat rheumatic affections[4, 257]. It is also used in treating diseases of the mucous membranes, respiratory complaints, VD, TB, coughs, colds and influenza[4, 257]. A decoction is used to rid the body of tapeworms and other internal parasites[257]. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers[4]. A poultice of the melted gum has been applied to cuts and sores[257]. The heated pitch has been applied to the face as a depilatory[257]. The pitch has also been used as a face cream to prevent sunburn[257]. The heated pitch has been used as a poultice to treat sciatic pains and muscular soreness[257]. The cooked pitch has been used by women to stop menstruation and thereby become infertile[257]. It has also been given to adolescent girls to help them keep youthful and live a long life[257]. The gum is used as a plaster on sores and cuts[216].
Other Uses
Adhesive;  Dye;  Fuel;  Herbicide;  Pitch;  Plaster;  Roofing;  Wood.

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The gum (this almost certainly means the resin[K]) is used in waterproofing canoes, baskets, water containers etc, for repairing pottery vessels and in making turquoise mosaic[216]. It is also used as an adhesive for mending pottery[257]. The bark has been used as a roofing material in houses[257]. Wood - light, soft, weak and brittle[82]. Used primarily for fuel and fence posts[229]. It is also made into charcoal and used for smelting[82]. The wood has a high combustibility and burns well[257]. It gives off a pleasant aroma as it burns[257].
Cultivation details
Management: Standard;  Staple Crop: Protein-oil;  Wild Staple Crop.

Landscape Uses:Specimen, Woodland garden. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Succeeds in a hot dry position[200]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. A slow growing tree in the wild, taking 25 years from sowing until it produces a crop[117]. It then usually produces cones annually, with heavy crops very 2 - 3 years[229]. The tree is long-lived, taking 250 - 350 years to reach maturity[181]. It grows well in southern England[120] and in most of the drier parts of Britain[11]. The cones take 2 summers to mature[229], they open and shed their seed whilst still attached to the tree[226]. Closely related to P. cembroides and considered to be no more than a sub-species of it by some botanists[11]. The main difference is that this species has its leaves singly whilst P. cembroides has them in groups of two or three[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].

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Weed Potential

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Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
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123
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Expert comment
 
Author
Torr.&Frém.
Botanical References
1182200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Trevor P.
Sep 25 2012 12:00AM
I am not an expert on any species of plant, I am only relaying information that was given to me by other people and my direct observations. Regarding Pinus Monophylla: I have several at 2400m elevation, although they thrive better at lower elevation. I observe many of them growing on stream and river banks, so they are much more water tolerant than they are given credit for. The growth rate is limited by the small number of pores in the leaves, a feature that is unique to this species and readily visible with a 6x magnifier. They develop very long tap roots in the wild, typically several times the height of a sapling. Saplings need protection from direct sun; mature plants need direct sun. In the wild they sprout best under "nurse shrubs" such as Big Sage. Deer will eat the sprouts, so the nurse shrubs also protect the sprouts from browsers by hiding them. The wood is sold by the pound as a flavoring for barbeque smoking. There may be more subspecies than have been reported. Prepared nuts are available from a distributor for about $30/pound. Most of these are harvested by Native Americans from the forest in the Pine Nut Range at about 1400m elevation about 50km north of my property. Wild saplings are transplant-able if less than 25cm tall and uprooted with tap root intact. Most of my saplings are found around the base of mature trees, calling into question the claim that the mature tree can stop germination around its base.
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Subject : Pinus monophylla  

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