homebanner homebanner homebanner homebanner homebanner homebanner
Pinus banksiana - Lamb.
                 
Common Name Jack Pine
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 2-7
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Barren sandy or rocky soils[43], sometimes forming extensive forests[235]. Fire successional in boreal forests, tundra transition, dry flats, and hills, sandy soils, sea level to 800 metres[270].
Range Northern N. America - Alaska to Northwest Territory, south to New York, Illinois and Minnesota.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Pyramidal.

Pinus banksiana Jack Pine


http://www.flickr.com/photos/mricon/
Pinus banksiana Jack Pine
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 1: 58.
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus banksiana is an evergreen Tree growing to 12 m (39ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jan to February. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms
P. divaricata. P. hudsonica.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Inner bark;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Drink.

Seed - raw or cooked[177]. Rich in oil with a slightly resinous flavour[K]. They are very small and fiddly to utilize, being only 2 - 3mm long[200]. Young cones - cooked[177]. Inner bark[257]. No more information is given, but the bark can usually be eaten raw or cooked. It can also be dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickener in soups or can be mixed with cereal flours when making bread etc[K]. A refreshing drink is made from the leaves[159, 177]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Poultice;  Rubefacient;  Vermifuge.

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4]. A poultice of the inner bark has been used in the treatment of deep cuts[257]. The leaves have been used in a herbal steam bath to clear congested lungs[257]. They have also been used as a fumigant to revive a comatose patient[257].
Other Uses
Dye;  Herbicide;  String;  Wood.

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes[226, 257]. In a sandy soil, the roots of this species extend near the surface of the soil for perhaps 10 metres and are easy to pull out of the ground for their entire length. When gathered, they were made into coils and sunk beneath the surface of water until the outer bark had loosened from the root. They were then peeled and split in half, each half being a serviceable cord for sewing together canoes and bark strips intended for the roofs of wigwams and other purposes[257]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc[257]. Wood - fairly light, soft, coarse, weak[46, 61, 82, 226]. It weighs 27lb per cubic foot[235]. It is mainly used for fuel, though occasionally also for posts, pulp and lumber[46, 61, 82, 226].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Screen. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1]. The trees have an extensive root system and are well adapted for growing in poor sandy soils[11, 226], they are often used as a pioneer tree for reforestation[226]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shady positions[1]. Starts away well on almost any soil, whether poorly drained or shallow and dry[185]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. A fast growing tree when young[200], but growth soon slows down and the tree is short-lived in Britain with no tree known to be older than 75 years[185]. New shoots can be almost 1 metre long, though the tree remains spindly[185]. An open-topped tree, though plants sometimes have a shrubby habit of growth[82]. They can start producing seed when only a few years old[82]. The cones are 4- 5cm long[82]. They ripen in their second year but can remain un-opened on the tree for a number of years, only opening and shedding their seed after a forest fire has heated them to at least 50°c[226]. This makes them one of the first colonizers of burnt land[226]. Cultivated for timber in C. Europe[50]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. This species hybridises in the wild with the closely related P. contorta where their ranges overlap[226, 270]. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value[200]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby inhibiting the growth of other plants below the tree[18]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features:North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Acinos alpinusAlpine Calamint11
Carpinus betulusHornbeam, European hornbeam, Common Hornbeam, European Hornbeam02
Carpinus carolinianaAmerican Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, American Hornbeam11
Carpinus cordata 00
Carpinus laxiflora 00
Lupinus albusWhite Lupin41
Lupinus albus graecus 40
Lupinus angustifoliusBlue Lupin, Narrowleaf lupine40
Lupinus arboreusTree Lupin, Yellow bush lupine00
Lupinus hirsutus 20
Lupinus littoralisSeashore Lupine20
Lupinus luteusYellow Lupin, European yellow lupine30
Lupinus mutabilisPearl Lupin, Tarwi50
Lupinus nootkatensisBlue Lupine, Nootka lupine30
Lupinus perennisSundial Lupine31
Lupinus polyphyllusBig-Leaf Lupin, Lupine11
Lupinus tauris 00
Lupinus termisWhite Lupin20
Phyllocladus alpinusAlpine Celery Pine00
Pinus albicaulisWhite-Bark Pine42
Pinus aristataBristle-Cone Pine22
Pinus armandiiChinese White Pine, Armand pine42
Pinus ayacahuiteMexican White Pine22
Pinus bungeanaLace-Bark Pine, Bunge's pine32
Pinus californiarum 12
Pinus cembraSwiss Stone Pine, Swiss Pine, Arolla Pine42
Pinus cembra sibiricaSiberian Pine42
Pinus cembroidesMexican Pine Nut, Pinyon Pine42
Pinus cembroides orizabensisMexican Pine Nut42
123
Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

      You can download this page as a PDF

Due to a fault in the PDF printer we are trying a few different options. Please try the one below

 

Print Friendly and PDF
Expert comment
 
Author
Lamb.
Botanical References
11200270
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Gordon Collier Mon Feb 25 2008
I have two plants of Pinus banksiana 'Gordon' a dwarf cultivar grafted from a witches broom on an old specimen in my former garden 'Titoki Point' at Taihape, NZ. The resulting plant has very tight leaves and tiny growths making a very compact bun.About 30cm in ten years.
Elizabeth H.
Jessica Sun Mar 1 2009
What is Pinus Banksiana's Chemical Composition!?!?!
QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.
2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.
3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.
Add a comment/link

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Pinus banksiana  

Plant Uses

Edible Uses
Medicinal Uses
Other Plant uses
Woodland Gardening
Why Perennial Plants?
Top Edible Plants
Top Medicinal Plants
Garden Design
Habitats
Translations

Twiter      Facebook

Content

Content Help
Bookshop
Support Us
Blog
Links
Old Database Search
Suppliers
Contact
About Us
News
Sign In

PFAF Newsletter

Stay informed about PFAFs progress,
challenges and hopes by signing up for
our free email ePost. You will receive
a range of benefits including:
* Important announcements and news
* Exclusive content not on the website
* Updates on new information &
functionality of the website & database

We will not sell or share your email address.
You can unsubscribe at anytime.