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Passiflora incarnata - L.                
                 
Common Name Maypops - Passion Flower, Purple passionflower, Apricot Vine, Maypop, Wild Passion Flower, Purple Pa
Family Passifloraceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards Sedation. Hypersensitivity reactions noted. Can potentiate the action of central nervous system depressants like alcohol [301].
Habitats Sandy thickets and open soils[43]. Fields, roadsides, fence rows and thickets[192].
Range Eastern N. America - Virginia and Kentucky, south to Florida and Texas.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: Lavender, Pink, Purple. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Spreading or horizontal, Variable height, Variable spread.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of climber
Passiflora incarnata is an evergreen Climber growing to 6 m (19ft 8in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

USDA hardiness zone : 7-11


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Passiflora incarnata Maypops - Passion Flower, Purple passionflower, Apricot Vine, Maypop, Wild Passion Flower, Purple Pa


Passiflora incarnata Maypops - Passion Flower, Purple passionflower, Apricot Vine, Maypop, Wild Passion Flower, Purple Pa
http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szerkeszt%C5%91:H3ini
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall. By. West Wall. By.
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Fruit;  Leaves.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked in jellies, jams etc[2, 3, 21, 46, 61]183]. A sweet flavour[4], it is best when used as a jelly[95]. High in niacin[160]. Fairly large, the fruit is up to 5cm in diameter[200] though it contains relatively little edible pulp and a lot of seeds[K]. Leaves - raw or cooked. Said to be delicious as a cooked vegetable or when eaten in salads[183]. Flowers - cooked as a vegetable or made into syrup[183].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antidepressant;  Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Diaphoretic;  Homeopathy;  Hypnotic;  Narcotic;  Sedative;  Vasodilator;  Women's complaints.

Maypops is a valuable sedative and tranquillising herb with a long history of use in North America[254]. It is frequently used in the treatment of insomnia, epilepsy, hysteria etc[254]. The leaves and stems are antispasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, hypnotic, narcotic, sedative, vasodilator and are also used in the treatment of women's complaints[4, 7, 21, 46, 61, 165, 192, 207, 238]. The plant is harvested after some of the berries have matured and is then dried for later use[4]. It is used in the treatment of insomnia, nervous tension, irritability, neuralgia, irritable bowel syndrome, pre-menstrual tension and vaginal discharges[4, 21, 165, 192, 207]. An extract of the plant depresses the motor nerves of the spinal cord[213], it is also slightly sedative, slightly reduces blood pressure and increases respiratory rate[222]. The plant contains alkaloids and flavonoids that are an effective non-addictive sedative that does not cause drowsiness[238]. The plant is not recommended for use during pregnancy[238]. A poultice of the roots is applied to boils, cuts, earaches, inflammation etc[222]. The dried plant is exported from America to Europe for medicinal usage[207]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant[4]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Passiflora incarnata for nervousness & insomnia (see [302] for critics of commission E).
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Arbor, Container, Seashore. Requires a well-drained soil with plenty of moisture in the growing season, otherwise it is not fussy[1]. Another report says that it prefers a well-drained sandy slightly acid soil in full sun[238]. In a well-drained soil the roots are hardy to about -20°c, although top growth is killed back by frost[160, 200]. The top growth is cut back almost to the ground each year by some people and the plant treated as a herbaceous perennial[88]. The roots should be mulched in winter to prevent them from freezing. Plants thrive in a short growing season[160]. A climbing plant, supporting itself by means of tendrils[222]. Resistant to pests and diseases[160]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Cultivated for its edible fruit by the North American Indians[2, 46]. Plants yield from 5 to 20 fruits annually in the wild[160]. Outdoor grown plants should have their roots restricted in order to encourage fruit production instead of excessive vegetative growth[1]. Hand pollinate using pollen from a flower that has been open for 12 hours to pollinate a newly opened flower before midday[88]. Special Features: North American native, Attracts butterflies, Attractive flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow late winter or early spring in a warm greenhouse. If sown in January and grown on fast it can flower and fruit in its first year[88]. The seed germinates in 1 - 12 months at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. It you are intending to grow the plants outdoors, it is probably best to keep them in the greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Mulch the roots well in late autumn to protect them from the cold. Cuttings of young shoots, 15cm with a heel, in spring[1]. Leaf bud cuttings in spring. Cuttings of fully mature wood in early summer. Takes 3 months. High percentage[3].
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
L.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
43200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7]Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[21]Lust. J. The Herb Book.
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[43]Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany.
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[88]RHS. The Garden. Volume 112.
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.
[95]Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada.
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.
[160]Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987.
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.
[165]Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
An excellent small herbal.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[192]Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants
A lot of details about the history, chemistry and use of narcotic plants, including hallucinogens, stimulants, inebriants and hypnotics.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[207]Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers.
A nice read, lots of information on plant uses.
[213]Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food.
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222]Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[254]Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[301]Karalliedde. L. and Gawarammana. I. Traditional Herbal Medicines
A guide to the safer use of herbal medicines.
[302]From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Commission E
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commission_E

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Rita Pugh Sat Nov 30 15:51:40 2002
I planted passiflora incarnata L. seeds this spring. They grew into 2-3 foot vines. However, they did not bloom. Why? Thanks for your help.
Elizabeth H.
Vanya Orr Fri Sep 26 01:55:34 2003
I am working with herbs in the Nilgiri Hills S.India. Passiflora caerulea is used locally (Buds and young leaves as a vegetable. Also for Diabetes and heart conditions. Any other angles on this? Vanya
Elizabeth H.
Alice Woodrome Tue Nov 30 14:48:41 2004
Passiflora incarnata, contrary to information provided about this plant, do grow okay in the shade, they just don't bloom in the shade, which may be your problem.... not enough sun. Oklahoma zone 7a
Elizabeth H.
swapan gandhi Tue Mar 29 00:34:07 2005
What is a good resource for Passiflora Incarnata seeds (not cultivars)?
Elizabeth H.
Moabmoni Thu May 26 21:49:21 2005
This plant is extremely invasive. Be prepared to have it coming up everywhere. The first year it grew very little, but every year after that it has sent suckers up everywhere, even under a sidewalk. I can't seem to get rid of it even by digging up the roots and tearing them out.
Elizabeth H.
Fer Fri Jul 20 2007
In regards to edible uses for Passiflora incarnata, Cherokee Indians traditionally made a hot drink from the juice from the fruits (often termed "wild apricot" and the Cherokee name does literally translate to "old field apricot"); the "old field apricot drink" or "uwaga aditasdi" was made either fresh, or could be air-fermented to make a mild mead or metheglin. Numerous recipes exist for uwaga aditasdi online; I've included one from the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Big part of our culture ;3

Cherokee, NC Official Site: Recipes Recipe for uwaga aditasdi (traditional Cherokee maypop drink)

Elizabeth H.
madhumathi s Sat Aug 11 2007
More details regarding phytochemical and pharmacological research studies by any others and their contact addresses for a research study undertaken
Anthony P.
Sep 1 2012 12:00AM
Instructions on a packet of P. incarnata seeds from T+M are to sow in compost, keep it at 21C (they explain that's the optimum temperature); it nothing happens in 3 months put it in the fridge for 3-5 months, then try again at 21C and germination should happen in 3 months. Oh, and now hanging about, sow immediately. Sounds from Moabmoni's account like I'll be restricting the root run, but I've a while to wait!
R. F.
Sep 25 2012 12:00AM
You have said that the leaves are "edible raw or cooked" but since the leaves are the part that is used medicinally as a rather strong sedative, then consuming the leaves as food would not be at all advised. In my experience of growing and using this plant, even one small leaf, fresh or dried, is a quite strong sedative, so I would discourage anyone from using it for salads or other food use. It is good medicine for PTSD and panic attacks (in my opinion) but strong and to be treated with respect. It combines with other herbal medicines that are sedating to increase effects (valerian, st. john's wort). It is a reversible MAOI, so do your research before using this and be aware if you are taking SSRIs or anything else that an MAOI would be bad to combine with. Be careful.
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