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Jasminum grandiflorum - L.
                 
Common Name Jasmin
Family Oleaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Not known
Range East tropical Africa - Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda; through Arabia to the Indian subcontinent and western China.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Jasminum grandiflorum, also known as Jasmin, White fragrant flower, or Spanish Jasmine among others, is an evergreen or deciduous shrub growing about 2-4 m tall. It has opposite, pinnate leaves comprised of 5-11 leaflets and white fragrant flowers. There are two recognized subspecies: J. grandiflorum subs. floribundum and S. grandiflorum subs. grandiflorum. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. Flowering commence at 6 months after planting. Jasmin is highly valued for its very fragrant flowers which are source of essential oil used in perfumery. The oil also has medicinal uses specifically as a muscle relaxant and an aphrodisiac. Moreover, Jasmin flowers are used for coughs, headache, weak eyes, scorpion stings, and skin diseases. It is also a popular flavoring in tea. The leaves are used against ulcers.

Jasminum grandiflorum Jasmin


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Jasminum grandiflorum Jasmin
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Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of climber
Jasminum grandiflorum is an evergreen Climber growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
Jasminum aureum D.Don Jasminum catalonicum DC. Jasminum floribundum R.Br. ex Fresen. Jasminum hispan

Habitats
Edible Uses
Jasmine absolute (the essential oil) and concrete (the waxy solid containing the essential oil) are used as additives in food and tobacco[310 ]. Jasmine flowers are a popular flavouring in tea in countries such as China and India[310 ].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



Jasmine oil or essence is used medicinally. It is said to stimulate the reproductive system as an aphrodisiac and as a muscle relaxant, by warming and softening nerves and tendons[310 ]. An infusion of the flowers is used to relieve coughs[348 ]. The flowers are also used to treat headaches (external application?[K ]) weak eyes and scorpion stings[240 ]. Applied externally, an infusion of the flowers is used to treat skin diseases[240 ]. The leaves are chewed as a remedy for ulcers or eruptions in the mouth[240 ]. The fresh juice of the plant is applied to corns[240 ]. Mixed with oil, it is poured into the ears as a treatment for otorrhoea[240 ].
Other Uses
Agroforestry Uses: Jasmine requires support, ranging from individual stakes and trellises to the post and wire systems used in vineyards. To lower plantation establishment costs it is common to intercrop in the first 2 years, as is done in India. In southern Italy intercropping is done in bergamot orange plantations which start producing after 10 - 15 years[310 ]. Other Uses Jasmine concrete, the major jasmine product traded, is obtained by solvent extraction (using petroleum ether, hexane or liquid carbon dioxide) of the fresh flowers. It is normally a yellowish to reddish orange-brown waxy solid, only partially soluble in 95% alcohol with an odour like jasmine absolute[310 ]. Jasmine absolute (the essential oil), is a dark orange-brown viscous liquid, darkening with age to red-brown or even deep red. Its odour is intense floral, warm, rich, highly diffusive, with a peculiar waxy-herbaceous oily-fruity and tea-like undertone. Light may reduce the quality of the absolute, especially degrading the benzyl acetate and benzyl benzoate it contains. The major components from jasmine absolute (Egyptian samples) include: benzyl acetate, benzyl benzoate, isophytol, phytol, phytol acetate, linalool and methyl jamonate. Composition varies due to many factors, including the cultivar extracted; time of day the flowers were plucked; flower age; weather conditions; season of plucking; time between plucking and extraction; extraction method and extraction solvent. Jasmine absolute is the major product of the flowers. It has a powerful and tenacious odour and is common in all kinds of perfumes[310 ]. Attar of jasmine, or East Indian jasmine oil, is prepared by water distillion of the flowers and collecting the distillate in a base oil such as Sandalwood oil[310 ]. Perfumed oils are produced by extracting from the flowers with hot sesame or groundnut oil or by mixing the flowers with boiled sesame seed and subsequently expressing the seed oil[310 ]. The wax, which is the residue of the concrete after extraction of the essential oil,) can be used in soaps and is an excellent perfume fixative[310 ].
Cultivation details
Jasminum grandiflorum can be grown from the warm temperate to the tropical zones. When grown commercially, plantations are usually below elevations of 500 metres[310 ]. The plant is day-neutral, and floral initiation is promoted by high day and low night temperatures. Some cultivars can resist at least some frost[310 ]. Grows best in a sunny position, growth and flowering being depressed by shade[310 ]. Preferring warm sunny conditions with adequate soil moisture, the plant can withstand short periods of very high temperatures[310 ]. Growth and flowering are depressed by low daytime temperatures and cool wet conditions[310 ]. Some cultivars are fairly drought tolerant, although flowering is strongly reduced by moisture stress[310 ]. Almost any well-drained soil is suitable, but sandy clays or loams with a pH between 6 - 8 are preferred[310 ]. Marshy, waterlogged or very stony soils should be avoided, as should saline soils[310 ]. The plant grows slowly for the first 2 years after planting, but first flowering starts at the age of 6 months. In the 3rd and following years flowering is profuse[310 ]. Mature plants flower for 7 - 9 months per year in warm regions, 4 - 6 months in temperate regions[310 ]. Seed set is usually very low and pollen sterility frequently above 75%[310 ]. Flowers open early in the morning and oil content decreases considerably after 10 a.m. In Europe, flowers contain substantially more essential oil in August and September than in July and October[310 ]. Jasmine plantations usually remain productive for 10 - 15 years but perhaps much longer if well-managed[310 ]. Jasminum grandiflorum is a complex species with wild and cultivated populations[310 ]. Jasmine flowers are picked manually between dawn and 10 a.m., during the hot season in India even between 3 - 8 a.m. Preferably only half-opened and fresh fully opened flowers must be picked, not buds or old (yellowish) flowers, as these will depress the quality of the essential oil. Although rain makes the flowers almost useless, picking flowers in the rain should continue, to promote further flowering[310 ]. An experienced picker can harvest 0.5 kg flowers per hour, but the pickers are usually young women and children, who achieve 2 kg in 5 hours[310 ]. Annual flower yield of jasmine varies from 5.5 - 12.5 t/ha, on average 5 - 8 t/ha. Modern commercial plantations average 8 - 10 t/ha. In Java, production is highest during the rainy season (30 kg/ha per day), and lowest during the dry season (4 kg/ha per day). Concrete yield is about 0.1%; up to 0.3% is reported from India. As an approximate guide, 1000 kg flowers yield 1 kg concrete when solvent extracted, half of this as absolute[310 ]. Jasmine flowers must be quickly processed, since delay substantially reduces essential oil content. Flowers should be kept shaded and cool between picking and processing and the processing facility should be close to the plantation. Freshly picked flowers can be stored in polythene bags at 15°c without loss of yield, quality or odour[310 ]. Jasmine oil can be obtained from flowers by steam distillation but the yield is very low. Jasmine concrete is obtained from flowers, formerly by enfleurage, currently by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, flowers are washed up to 3 times with petroleum ether or, preferably, with hydrocarbon-free food-grade hexane; the extract is then distilled to remove the solvent, resulting in the concrete. Concrete is usually produced at the plantation, but absolute is produced where convenient, often in another country[310 ].
Propagation
Seed - although it can be propagated by seed, seed production is usually low, viability is seldom above 50% and seed remains viable for 6 months only[310 ]. Cuttings 12 - 20cm long should be taken from terminal shoots; treatment with a root stimulator increases the strike rate[310 ]. Cuttings taken from shoot tips have given better results than semi-ripe cuttings. They are usually treated with a fungicide, placed in prepared planting holes and watered[310 ]. Layering in the field is done with one-year-old shoots; a slanting cut is made approximately half-way through the shoot some 50cm from the end; the cut is buried about 10 - 15cm deep with the top remaining above ground. After about 4 - 6 months the rooted layers can be separated from the parent plant and transplanted[310 ]. In warm temperate areas the plant is grafted on 2 - 3-year-old rootstocks of Jasminum officinale to give protection against frost. In warmer regions grafting is not needed[310 ].

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Other Names
Jasmin, Suxinhua, Saman pichcha, catalonian jasmine, chameliphool, spanish jasmine.
Found In
Arabia, Asia, Australia, China*, Europe, Fiji, France, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Pacific, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Spain, Sri Lanka, USA, West Indies,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Jasminum humileYellow Jasmine11
Jasminum nudiflorumWinter-Flowering Jasmin, Winter jasmine01
Jasminum odoratissimum 10
Jasminum officinaleJessamine, Poet's jasmine22
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For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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Subject : Jasminum grandiflorum  

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