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Fraxinus ornus - L.
                 
Common Name Manna Ash, Flowering ash
Family Oleaceae
USDA hardiness 5-6
Known Hazards Contact with the sap has caused skin or systemic allergic reactions in some people[238].
Habitats Mixed woodland, thickets and rocky places[50], mainly on limestone[89].
Range S. Europe to W. Asia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Green. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring.Form: Rounded.

Fraxinus ornus Manna Ash, Flowering ash


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Koeh-062.jpg
Fraxinus ornus Manna Ash, Flowering ash
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Franz_Xaver
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Fraxinus ornus is a deciduous Tree growing to 9 m (29ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Sep to December. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Synonyms
Ornus europaea

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Manna.
Edible Uses:

Manna - a sweetish exudate is obtained from the stems by incision[2, 4, 11, 114, 171, 183]. The quality is better from the upper stems. A mild sweet taste[114], its main use is as a mild and gentle laxative[171], though it is also used as a sweetener in sugar-free preparations and as an anti-caking agent[238]. The tree trunk must be at least 8cm in diameter before the manna can be harvested[4]. A vertical series of oblique incisions are made in the trunk in the summer once the tree is no longer producing many new leaves[4]. One cut is made every day from July to the end of September. A whitish glutinous liquid exudes from this cut, hardens and is then harvested[2]. Dry and warm weather is essential if a good harvest is to be realised[4]. The tree is harvested for 9 consecutive years, which exhausts the tree. This is then cut down, leaving one shoot to grow back. It takes 4 - 5 years for this shoot to become productive[2]. Average yields of 6 kilos per hectare of top quality manna, plus 80 kilos of assorted manna are achieved[2].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Laxative;  Tonic.

The manna obtained from the trunk is a gentle laxative and a tonic[4, 46]. It is especially valuable for children and pregnant women[4, 238]. Its action is normally very mild, though it does sometimes cause flatulence and pain[4].
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Pollard, Specimen. Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side[1, 200]. Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich soil[11, 200]. Succeeds in exposed positions[200] and in alkaline soils[11]. Requires a moist soil according to some reports[1, 11] whilst another says that it succeeds in drier soils[200]. Plants are tolerant of atmospheric pollution[200]. Although the dormant plant is very cold-hardy, the young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. A very ornamental plant[1], the manna ash is cultivated for its edible manna in Sicily and Calabria[89, 142]. The flowers are sweetly scented[245]. Trees have a very dense canopy[11]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Special Features:Not North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation
The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[80]. It usually germinates in the spring[80]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[200]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year. If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds.
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Fraxinus americanaWhite Ash12
Fraxinus angustifoliaNarrow-Leaved Ash10
Fraxinus bungeanaXiao Ye Qin02
Fraxinus chinensis rhynchophyllaHua Qu Liu02
Fraxinus excelsiorAsh, European ash, Common Ash22
Fraxinus floribundaHimalayan Ash22
Fraxinus hookeri 00
Fraxinus latifoliaOregon Ash01
Fraxinus longicuspis 01
Fraxinus nigraBlack Ash01
Fraxinus pennsylvanicaRed Ash, Green ash, Water Ash11
Fraxinus quadrangulataBlue Ash00
Fraxinus sieboldianaAsh00
Fraxinus texensisTexas White Ash00
Fraxinus velutinaArizona Ash, Velvet ash, Modesto Ash, Fantex Ash00
Fraxinus xanthoxyloides 00
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
1150200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Prof. Dr. Musa GENC Wed Feb 22 2006
Turkish name: Cicekli disbudak

Forestry Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkiye

Elizabeth H.
maryam Sat Mar 31 2007
is fraxinus ornus tolerant to salinity and soil compacted? and needs drainage?
Elizabeth H.
Doreen Sat May 24 2008
If planted nearer than 50ft (the ultimate height shown in my book) from houses, should it be removed/pruned? We have only 9" foundations. Our neighbour has this tree planted next to our boundary with his property and it is much less than 50ft. away.
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Subject : Fraxinus ornus  

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