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Eucalyptus viminalis - Labill.
                 
Common Name Manna Gum
Family Myrtaceae
USDA hardiness 7-10
Known Hazards Citronellal, an essential oil found in most Eucalyptus species is reported to be mutagenic when used in isolation[269]. In large doses, oil of eucalyptus, like so many essential oils has caused fatalities from intestinal irritation[269]. Death is reported from ingestion of 4 - 24 ml of essential oils, but recoveries are also reported for the same amount[269]. Symptoms include gastroenteric burning and irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, oxygen deficiency, ,weakness, dizziness, stupor, difficult respiration, delirium, paralysis, convulsions, and death, usually due to respiratory failure[269].
Habitats Cool moist sites, usually on better soils, to 1400 metres[77, 152].
Range Australia - Tasmania.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Frost Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Wet Soil Full sun

Summary

Eucalyptus viminalis Manna Gum


Eucalyptus viminalis Manna Gum
http://flickr.com/photos/8108294%40N05/
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Eucalyptus viminalis is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
E. angustifolia.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy; Bog Garden;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Manna.
Edible Uses:

A manna is exuded from the leaves[4, 11, 177] (from the bark as well according to some reports[61, 177]) as a result of insect damage[144]. The red gum or manna exuding from cracks in the bark is eaten eagerly by boys[269]. Eucalyptus manna, which exudes from punctures in summer months, is sometimes consumed[269]. A very pleasant sweet taste[46, 105], it is slightly laxative[152]. The aboriginal Australians collected it after it fell to the ground, or they scraped it from the leaves[183]. Heavily covered leaves were pounded and baked[183]. Since the manna is probably formed as a result of insect damage, it is quite possible that it will not be formed in Britain because the same insects will not be able to live here[K]. The manna contains the sugars arabinose, raffinose, dextrose, and sucrose[269].
Medicinal Uses


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Antiviral;  Laxative.

A sweet manna exuded from the plant has a mild laxative effect[152, 238]. The essential oil found in the leaves shows an antiviral effect and can be used in the treatment of influenza[269]. The leaves inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus[269]. The leafy twig decoction was used to bathe rheumatic limbs[269].
Other Uses
Adhesive;  Essential;  Fuel;  Repellent;  Soil stabilization;  Wood.

The leaves contain between 0.35 - 0.75% essential oil, of which 50 - 65% is cineol, 5% is pinene, and 10% is eudesmol[154, 269]. The bark contains 4.8 - 8% tannin[269]. The red gum or manna exuding from cracks in the bark has been used for making adhesives[269]. Planted in S. Europe for soil stabilization and to drain marshes in order to get rid of malarial mosquitoes[50]. Wood - coarse grained, durable in the soil[46, 61], excellent quality[77]. In rich soils the wood is not so hard or durable[155]. The wood, which weighs about 51 lb./cu ft, is used for building, construction, joinery, and vehicles[269]. It is considered suitable for paper pulp[269] and is a moderately good fuel[155].
Cultivation details
Prefers a sunny position in a moderately fertile well-drained moisture retentive circum-neutral soil[200]. Tolerates poor soils, especially those low in mineral elements[200]. Tolerates dry soils and also drought once it is established[200]. A fairly hardy species, one report suggests that it is hardy to between -15°c and -20°c[200] whilst another says that plants succumb to hard frosts[11]. Eucalyptus species have not adopted a deciduous habit and continue to grow until it is too cold for them to do so. This makes them more susceptible to damage from sudden cold snaps. If temperature fluctuations are more gradual, as in a woodland for example, the plants have the opportunity to stop growing and become dormant, thus making them more cold resistant. A deep mulch around the roots to prevent the soil from freezing also helps the trees to survive cold conditions. The members of this genus are remarkably adaptable however, there can be a dramatic increase in the hardiness of subsequent generations from the seed of survivors growing in temperate zones[200]. Eucalyptus monocultures are an environmental disaster, they are voracious, allelopathic and encourage the worst possible attitudes to land use and conservation[200]. A fast growing tree, it is often cultivated in S.W. Europe for timber, soil stabilization shelter and as an anti-malarial measure, the trees are capable of drying out wet ground, making it unsuitable for mosquitoes to breed in[50]. This species is very easily confused with E. dalrympleana[11]. Plants are shallow-rooting and, especially in windy areas, should be planted out into their permanent positions when small to ensure that they do not suffer from wind-rock[245]. They strongly resent root disturbance and should be container grown before planting out into their permanent position[11]. The flowers are rich in nectar and are a good bee crop[200].
Propagation
Seed - surface sow February/March in a sunny position in a greenhouse[11, 78, 134]. Species that come from high altitudes appreciate 6 - 8 weeks cold stratification at 2°c[200]. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as the second set of seed leaves has developed, if left longer than this they might not move well. Plant out into their permanent positions in early summer and give them some protection from the cold in their first winter. The seed can also be sown in June, the young trees being planted in their final positions in late spring of the following year. The seed has a long viability[200].

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Weed Potential

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Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Corymbia citriodoraLemon-Scented Gum, blue spotted gum, lemon eucalyptus, eucalyptus citriodora.23
Eucalyptus caesiaGungurru20
Eucalyptus camaldulensisRed River Gum, Murray Red Gum, River Red Eucalyptus13
Eucalyptus citriodoraLemon-Scented Gum, Lemon Scented Eucalyptus13
Eucalyptus cocciferaMt. Wellington Peppermint00
Eucalyptus dumosaWater Mallee10
Eucalyptus globulusTasmanian Blue Gum, Eurabbie, Blue Gum, Blue Eucalyptus14
Eucalyptus grandisFlooded Gum, Gum, Rose Eucalyptus02
Eucalyptus gummiferaRed Bloodwood13
Eucalyptus gunniiCider Gum33
Eucalyptus johnstoniiYellow Gum, Johnston's gum00
Eucalyptus largiflorensBlack Box10
Eucalyptus leucoxylonYellow Gum, White ironbark, White Eucalyptus10
Eucalyptus macrorhynchaRed Stringybark13
Eucalyptus melliodoraYellow Box00
Eucalyptus microcorysTallow Wood, Australian tallowwood00
Eucalyptus obliquaMessmate00
Eucalyptus paucifloraCabbage Gum, Snow gum00
Eucalyptus pauciflora niphophilaSnow Gum03
Eucalyptus perrinianaSpinning Gum00
Eucalyptus piperitaSydney Peppermint02
Eucalyptus polybracteaBlue Mallee13
Eucalyptus punctataGrey Gum10
Eucalyptus racemosaSnappy Gum03
Eucalyptus regnansMountain Ash00
Eucalyptus robustaSwamp Mahogany, Eucalyptus Gum03
Eucalyptus sideroxylonRed Ironbark, Eucalyptus, Gum, Pink Ironbark00
Eucalyptus youmanii 10
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Expert comment
 
Author
Labill.
Botanical References
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Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Mon Dec 3 2007

Eucalyptus-Passion Eucalyptus hardy in Europe

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Subject : Eucalyptus viminalis  

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