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Echinochloa crus-galli - (L.)P.Beauv.                
                 
Common Name Barnyard Millet
Family Poaceae or Gramineae
Synonyms Panicum crus-galli
Known Hazards This grass has been reported to accumulate levels of nitrate in its tissues high enough to be toxic to farm animals[269]. This problem is most likely to occur when plants are fed with inorganic fertilizers[K].
Habitats Ditches roadsides and waste places in S. Europe[50]. Wet places and rich soils in India[240].
Range Native habitat is unknown but it is widespread in warmer regions occasionally introduced in Britain.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of flower
Echinochloa crus-galli is a ANNUAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

USDA hardiness zone : Coming soon


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Echinochloa crus-galli Barnyard Millet


http://www.hear.org/starr/
Echinochloa crus-galli Barnyard Millet
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Mbc
   
Habitats       
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.

Seed - cooked[35, 55, 105, 171]. Used as a millet, it can be cooked whole or be ground into a flour before use[183, 257]. It has a good flavour[85] and can be used in porridges, macaroni, dumplings etc[183]. The seed is rather small[159], though fairly easy to harvest. It has a somewhat bitter flavour[178]. Young shoots, stem tips and the heart of the culm - raw or cooked[144, 177]. A nutritional analysis is available[218]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[177].
Composition                                         
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)
  • 0 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 7.4g; Fat: 2.9g; Carbohydrate: 81.1g; Fibre: 31.3g; Ash: 8.6g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes:
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Styptic;  Tonic.

Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy for treating carbuncles, haemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer and wounds[269]. The shoots and/or the roots are applied as a styptic to wounds[218, 240]. The plant is a tonic, acting on the spleen[218, 240].
Other Uses
Soil reclamation.

The plant is sometimes used, especially in Egypt, for the reclamation of saline and alkaline areas[269].
Cultivation details                                         
An easily grown plant, it is adapted to nearly all types of wet places, and is often a common weed in paddy fields, roadsides, cultivated areas, and fallow fields[269]. It succeeds on a variety of wet sites such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often growing in water[269]. It succeeds in cool regions, but is better adapted to areas where the average annual temperature is 14-16°C[269]. Tolerant of most soil types, including saline conditions, plants are not restricted by soil pH[269]. Prefers a rich moist soil[85] but succeeds in ordinary garden soil[1]. The sub-species E. crus-galli zelayensis (HBK)Hitchc. is often found growing wild in alkaline soils[236]. The plant is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 31 to 250cm, an annual temperature range of 5.7 to 27.8°C and a pH in the range of 4.8 to 8.2[269]. Barnyard millet is sometimes cultivated for its edible seed in India[171]. It has a relatively long growing season and does not always ripen its seed in Britain, though it should do better in the eastern half of the country[K]. The plant is considered to be a very serious weed of many cultivated crops[269].
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. A sowing in situ in late spring might also succeed but is unlikely to ripen a crop of seed if the summer is cool and wet.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(L.)P.Beauv.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
50200236
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[35]The Herb Society Herbal Review. Vol.11. 4.
[50]? Flora Europaea
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
[55]Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds.
Interesting reading.
[85]Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains.
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[144]Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia.
A very good pocket guide.
[159]McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana.
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.
[171]Hill. A. F. Economic Botany.
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[177]Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption.
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[178]Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica.
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[218]Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[236]Hitchcock. A. S. Manual of the Grasses of the United States
A nice and comprehensive flora, though a bit dated. Good line drawings of each plant, plus a brief idea of the habitat and a few notes on plant uses. Not for the casual reader.
[240]Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
[269]Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

Readers comment                                         
 
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Subject : Echinochloa crus-galli  
             

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