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Echinochloa crus-galli - (L.)P.Beauv.
Common Name Barnyard Millet, Barnyardgrass,
Family Poaceae or Gramineae
USDA hardiness 5-9
Known Hazards This grass has been reported to accumulate levels of nitrate in its tissues high enough to be toxic to farm animals[269]. This problem is most likely to occur when plants are fed with inorganic fertilizers[K].
Habitats Ditches roadsides and waste places in S. Europe[50]. Wet places and rich soils in India[240].
Range Native habitat is unknown but it is widespread in warmer regions occasionally introduced in Britain.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun


Echinochloa crus-galli Barnyard Millet, Barnyardgrass,

Echinochloa crus-galli Barnyard Millet, Barnyardgrass,
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Echinochloa crus-galli is a ANNUAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Panicum crus-galli

 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.

Seed - cooked[35, 55, 105, 171]. Used as a millet, it can be cooked whole or be ground into a flour before use[183, 257]. It has a good flavour[85] and can be used in porridges, macaroni, dumplings etc[183]. The seed is rather small[159], though fairly easy to harvest. It has a somewhat bitter flavour[178]. Young shoots, stem tips and the heart of the culm - raw or cooked[144, 177]. A nutritional analysis is available[218]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[177].
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)
  • 0 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 7.4g; Fat: 2.9g; Carbohydrate: 81.1g; Fibre: 31.3g; Ash: 8.6g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes:
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Styptic;  Tonic.

Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy for treating carbuncles, haemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer and wounds[269]. The shoots and/or the roots are applied as a styptic to wounds[218, 240]. The plant is a tonic, acting on the spleen[218, 240].
Other Uses
Soil reclamation.

The plant is sometimes used, especially in Egypt, for the reclamation of saline and alkaline areas[269].
Cultivation details
An easily grown plant, it is adapted to nearly all types of wet places, and is often a common weed in paddy fields, roadsides, cultivated areas, and fallow fields[269]. It succeeds on a variety of wet sites such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often growing in water[269]. It succeeds in cool regions, but is better adapted to areas where the average annual temperature is 14-16°C[269]. Tolerant of most soil types, including saline conditions, plants are not restricted by soil pH[269]. Prefers a rich moist soil[85] but succeeds in ordinary garden soil[1]. The sub-species E. crus-galli zelayensis (HBK)Hitchc. is often found growing wild in alkaline soils[236]. The plant is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 31 to 250cm, an annual temperature range of 5.7 to 27.8°C and a pH in the range of 4.8 to 8.2[269]. Barnyard millet is sometimes cultivated for its edible seed in India[171]. It has a relatively long growing season and does not always ripen its seed in Britain, though it should do better in the eastern half of the country[K]. The plant is considered to be a very serious weed of many cultivated crops[269].
Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. A sowing in situ in late spring might also succeed but is unlikely to ripen a crop of seed if the summer is cool and wet.
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Echinochloa colonaJungle Rice20
Echinochloa frumentaceaJapanese Millet, Billion-dollar grass31
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Subject : Echinochloa crus-galli  

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