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Drimys winteri - J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.
                 
Common Name Winter's Bark
Family Winteraceae
USDA hardiness 7-10
Known Hazards The sap of this plant can cause serious inflammation if it comes into contact with the eyes[139].
Habitats The dominant tree in moister lowland sites to Tierra Del Fuego[69]. Boggy sites by streams etc in rich soils[139].
Range Southern S. America - Chile, Argentina.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Frost Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade

Summary

Drimys winteri Winter


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Drimys winteri Winter
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Butterfly_voyages
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of shrub
Drimys winteri is an evergreen Shrub growing to 7.5 m (24ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jan to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms
D. aromatica. Murray. non (R.Br.)Muell. Wintera aromatica. Murray. non (R.Br.)Muell.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts:
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The aromatic pungent bark is powdered and used as a pepper substitute in Brazil, Chile and Argentina[2, 46, 69, 183]. It is rich in vitamin C[22].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antidandruff;  Antiscorbutic;  Aromatic;  Febrifuge;  Parasiticide;  Skin;  Stimulant;  Stomachic.


The bark is a pungent bitter tonic herb that relieves indigestion[238]. It is antiscorbutic, aromatic, febrifuge, skin, stimulant and stomachic. An infusion of the bark is used in the treatment of indigestion, colic, dandruff and scurvy[4, 46, 69, 139, 238]. It is also used as a parasiticide[4, 46, 69, 139]. The bark is harvested in the autumn and winter and is dried for later use[238].
Other Uses
Essential;  Parasiticide;  Wood.

The powerfully aromatic bark contains resinous matter and 0.64% of aromatic essential oil[245]. Wood - not durable, heavy (it sinks in water) - interior of houses, boxes etc. It burns badly with a smell[46, 61, 69, 139].
Cultivation details
Requires a light lime-free soil in semi-shade[202]. Tolerates chalk in the soil[11]. Requires a deep moist soil[11]. Dislikes dry conditions[139]. Prefers a warm sandy loam with some shelter[1]. Fairly wind resistant[49, 166]. Another report says that the plant resents severe wind-chill[202]. Succeeds against a wall at Kew[K] and it thrives in an open position in S.W. England[11, 49, 59]. Tolerates temperatures down to about -10°c[184]. This species is less hardy than D. lanceolata but it usually recovers from damage[120]. Another report says that it is hardier than D. lanceolata[200]. A very ornamental plant[11]. The sub-species D. winteri andina. Reiche. is a slow growing dwarf form seldom exceeding 1 metre in height[182]. It usually commences flowering when about 30cm tall[238]. A polymorphic species[139]. The flowers have a delicate fragrance of jasmine, whilst the bark has a powerful aromatic smell[245]. This plant was a symbol of peace to the indigenous Indian tribes of S. America in much the same way as an olive branch was used in Greece[139]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a greenhouse[200]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a cold frame. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in March/April. Takes 12 months[78]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10 - 15 cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Approximately 60% take[78]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth with a heel of older wood, November in a cold frame[78].

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Other Names
Chachaca, Palo de mambo,
Found In
Argentina, Australia, Belize, Brazil, Central America, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico*, Nicaragua, North America, Panama, South America, Tasmania,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
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Expert comment
 
Author
J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.
Botanical References
1169200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
Gamalieth Salazar Fri Mar 16 2007
I’m surprised with the fact that this tree is not cold tolerant, I think that provenances planted in Britain come from central Chile; everybody who has information about Tierra del Fuego, knows that Drimys winteri grows there and that has survived temperatures down to –20°C in the town of Ushuaia!. Compare all climate statistics from any city in Britain with Ushuaia and you will confirm that Tierra del Fuego is very much colder. Faroe Islands example: In Faroe Islands Drimys winteri has been very hardy; due to the fact that those islands are naturally devoid of trees and it was thought that no trees could grow because of strong winds and cold summers (10°c) , a commission was created in order to make an expedition to Tierra del Fuego, the collecting was carried out in tundra borders and tree-lines (colder places than Ushuaia), in crop trials trees (Drimys and Nothofagus) from Tierra del Fuego registered good growth but those from northern Europe and southern Alaska didn’t succeed because they need more heat in summer. The usefulness of Tierra del Fuego’ trees is amazing and they could be introduced even in Iceland. If we compare climate data averages; hottest month: Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego) 9°C, Reykjavik 11°C; coldest month Ushuaia 0°C, Reykjavik 0°C. In Iceland they could be used as wind curtains against strong winds in order to protect soil from grazing. Wood imports would be reduced. In Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands (in this two regions trees from Sitka, South Alaska; were a failure because they have more than 100 years and are still shrubs; they need more heat in summer), trees from Tierra del Fuego could be planted too because the climate is practically the same. Besides, I’m sure that if provenances of Drimys winteri from the southernmost forests of Tierra del Fuego are planted in Britain they will turn out to be very hardy ones. BIBLOGRAPHY: Højgaard, A., J. Jóhansen, and S. Ødum (eds) 1989. A century of tree planting in the Faroe Islands. Føroya Frodskaparfelag, Torshavn.
Elizabeth H.
Luke Harding Fri Jan 16 2009
It is often the combination of wet and cold which knocks plants in the UK. We also have cooler and wetter summers too and these factors don't allow for a stable/predictable climate. We also experience very late frosts. Some years plants will have been growing happily for a few months and then we freeze soild for a few days. The plants are still tender at that time and young tissue is easily damaged. We end up having to find very sheltered locations for them.
Elizabeth H.
Marco Vendetti Tue Mar 3 2009
Frosts in Tierra del Fuego are present also in early Autumn and late Spring and it has snowed even in summer, Fuegian trees tolerate this cold conditions throughout the year. Many tree species have arrived to Britain from their northernmost range from Chile and/or Argentina and have not been hardy at first, later some species with provenance from different places in its natural range have been tested in cultivation in Great Britain. Trees cultivated collected from Central Chile have been the most damaged by frosts. Trees collected from Tierra del Fuego were the hardiest and proved a good frost tolerance. I think it´s worthy to try with Winter´s bark. By the way there is a Winter’s bark tree growing in Northumberland, Northeast England, I don’t know its provenance.
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