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Diospyros celebica - Bakh.
                 
Common Name Indonesian Ebony, black ebony, makassar-ebenholts
Family Ebenaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rain forest and monsoon forest at elevations from sea level to 540 metres[ 325 ].
Range Southeast Asia - eastern Indonesia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Tender Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Indonesian Ebony or Diospyros celebica is a flowering tree that reaches up to 40 m high upon maturity. It has a cylindrical buttressed bole of up to 150 cm in diameter. It is endemic to Indonesia, particularly in the island of Sulawesi. Due to this, it is also known as Makassar Ebony which is based on the main seaport of the island, Makassar. The wood is highly valuable and usually exported. It is used for turnery, cabinets, posts, musical instruments, etc. The fruit is edible.

Diospyros celebica Indonesian Ebony, black ebony, makassar-ebenholts


International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Diospyros celebica Indonesian Ebony, black ebony, makassar-ebenholts
https://botanicimage.com/
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Diospyros celebica is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 30 m (98ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
Santalum myrtifolium (L) Roxb. Santalum ovatum R.Br. Sirium myrtifolium L.

Habitats
Edible Uses
Fruit[ 325 ].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



None known
Other Uses
Other Uses: A very hard wood, the basic colour is black with brown lines, soft fibre and naturally shiny[ 325 ]. Ebony is a luxurious wood with high decorative and commercial value, it is commonly used for wood carving, furniture, house utensils, interior accessories, and building material[ 325 ]. We do not have any more specific information for this species. However, though varying widely in the relative proportion and the colouring of sapwood and heartwood, all the woods of the genus Diospyros are practically indistinguishable as regards their structure, as described below:-[ 721 ] Whether or not a given species produces heartwood depends largely on the size the tree has attained, but evidently also on other conditions, as there is a wide variation in the relative amounts of sapwood and heartwood even in individuals of the same species. When produced, the heartwood can be black with rosy, yellowish, brownish, or ashy streaks, sometimes it is nearly or totally black; it is generally sharply demarcated from the thin to very wide band of whitish, yellowish, or red sapwood. The texture is fine, smooth and (especially in the heartwood) very dense; the grain is generally very straight. The wood is hard to very hard; heavy to very heavy; the sapwood is tough and flexible whilst the heartwood is brittle; the heartwood is very durable, the sapwood moderately so. It is difficult to season well, logs almost invariably checking in several directions from the heart outward, while sawn lumber must be stacked carefully and weighted to prevent warping; once thoroughly dried, however, it becomes very stable. Its density makes it difficult to work, but it takes a beautiful surface under sharp tools[ 721 ]. Small trees containing little or no heartwood are used locally for posts, beams, joists, rafters, window sills, parts of agricultural implements, etc.; also, in lumbering, small poles are used for skids on account of their hardness, toughness and smooth wearing qualities. The heartwood (or sometimes sap and heart together) is used for scabbards, canes, hilts, tool handles, gunstocks, saw frames, etc.; it is a favorite for musical instruments, especially finger boards and keys of guitars; furniture, cabinetwork, inlaying; paper weights, inkstands and similar desk supplies; the sapwood, which is almost as hard as the heartwood and very much tougher, is an excellent material for T-squares and other drawing instruments, for shuttles, bobbins, spindles, golf-club heads and shafts, axe, pick, and hammer handles, etc[ 721 ].
Cultivation details
A plant of the humid lowlands, where it is found at elevations up to 540 metres[ 325 ]. It grows best in areas where the mean annual temperature is between 22 - 28?c and the mean annual rainfall is 2,000 - 2,500mm[ 325 ]. Succeeds on various soil types - calcareous, clay and shallow stony soils[ 325 ]. It prefers relatively nutrient rich soil and is sensitive to water-logging[ 325 ]. The tree can commence flowering and fruiting when 5 - 7 years old from seed[ 325 ]. We have seen no individual confirmation for this species, but in general Diospyros species are dioecious and require both male and female forms to be grown if fruit and seed are required[ 899 ].
Propagation
Seed - it has a very short viability and so should be sown as soon as possible[ 325 ]. The flesh should be removed since this contains germination inhibitors[ 325 ]. Sow the seed in a shady position in a nursery seedbed. The sowing media for ebony uses soil and fine sand at the ratio 3:1. The seed is planted horizontally or vertically with the radicle end down, with a sowing depth of 1 - 1_ times the thickness of seed. Distance between the seeds is 3 - 5cm. Seeds are very sensitive to desiccation during germination and early growth, so must be regularly watered at this time[ 325 ]. Normally the seed will germinate after one week. In one trial, fresh seed, sown one day after collection, showed 85% germination rate within 17 - 65 days[ 325 ]. As a rule fresh seeds have a high percentage of fertility. The seedlings develop long taproots at an early stage, often before any appreciable elongation of the shoot takes place. The growth of the seedling is decidedly slow [ 652 ].
Other Names
None
Found In
Asia, Indonesia, SE Asia,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Vulnerable A1cd
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Diospyros conzattiiZapote negro mont's, zapotillo.40
Diospyros crassifloraBenin Ebony02
Diospyros digynaBlack Sapote, Chocolate Pudding Tree41
Diospyros ebenumEbony, Ceylon Ebony, Mauritius Ebony, Ebony Persimmon12
Diospyros kakiPersimmon, Japanese persimmon43
Diospyros lotusDate Plum51
Diospyros malabaricaIndian Persimmon, Gaub, Timbiri, Mountain ebony13
Diospyros mespiliformisWest African Ebony, Monkey guava, jackalberry43
Diospyros munMun Ebony, Vietnamese Ebony00
Diospyros quaesitaCalamander, kalu mediriya02
Diospyros tessellariaBlack ebony, Mauritian ebony20
Diospyros texanumBlack Persimmon20
Diospyros virginianaAmerican Persimmon, Common persimmon, Persimmon51
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Bakh.
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For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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Subject : Diospyros celebica  

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