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Dioscorea villosa - L.
                 
Common Name Wild Yam
Family Dioscoreaceae
USDA hardiness 5-9
Known Hazards Edible species of Dioscorea have opposite leaves whilst poisonous species have alternate leaves[174]. Use of the fresh plant can cause vomiting and other side effects[222]. Known to cause headaches, menstrual irregularities & acne. May cause hair loss & oily skin. Avoid during pregnancy. Avoid in patients with cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate & uterus [301].
Habitats Borders of bogs, swamps, marshes, river and lake margins, creek bottoms, sandy or rocky soils, moist or dry woods, hammocks, thickets, limestone or talus slopes, roadsides, sea level to 1500 m[270].
Range Eastern N. America - New England to Minnesota and Ontario, south to Virginia and Texas.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary

Dioscorea villosa Wild Yam


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Llez
Dioscorea villosa Wild Yam
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Llez
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Dioscorea villosa is a PERENNIAL CLIMBER growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Sep to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
Dioscorea cliffortiana Lam. Dioscorea hexaphylla Raf. Merione villosa (L.) Salisb.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Root.
Edible Uses:

Tuber - cooked[177]. Some caution should be exercised with this plant. See 'Medicinal Uses' for more information.
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiinflammatory;  Antirheumatic;  Antispasmodic;  Cholagogue;  Contraceptive;  Diaphoretic;  Homeopathy;  Vasodilator.


Wild yam roots, and the roots of many other members of the genus, contains diosgenin[222]. This is widely used in modern medicine in order to manufacture progesterone and other steroid drugs. These are used as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis[222, 254]. The roots are anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic and vasodilator[165, 238]. They are also a visceral relaxant[165]. This plant affords one of the best and fastest cures for bilious colic, it is especially helpful in treating the nausea of pregnant women[4] and has been used to ease the pain of childbirth[257]. It is also taken internally in the treatment of arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, gastritis, gall bladder complaints, painful menstruation etc[238]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. The root should not be stored for longer than 1 year, since it is likely to lose its medicinal virtues[4]. Caution is advised in the use of the this plant, when taken fresh it can cause vomiting and other side effects[222]. The root, harvested in September, is used to make a homeopathic remedy[232]. Its main use is in the treatment of infant colic[232].
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
An easily grown plant, succeeding in a fertile well-drained soil in a sunny position or light shade[200]. Prefers a rich light soil[1]. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c[238]. Plants produce tubercles (small tubers that are formed in the leaf axils of the stems), and can be propagated by this means[K]. A climbing plant that supports itself by twining around the branches of other plants[219]. This is a highly polymorphic species, some botanists dividing it up into several species[235, 270]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - sow March to April in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse and only just cover. It germinates in 1 - 3 weeks at 20°c[175]. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for their first year. Plant out in late spring as the plant comes into new growth. Basal stem cuttings in the summer[37]. Division in the dormant season, never when in growth[1]. The plant will often produce a number of shoots, the top 5 - 10 cm of the root below each shoot can be potted up to form a new plant whilst the lower part of the root can possibly be eaten[K]. Tubercles (baby tubers) are formed in the leaf axils. These are harvested in late summer and early autumn when about the size of a pea and coming away easily from the plant. They should be potted up immediately in individual pots in a greenhouse or cold frame. Plant out in early summer when in active growth[K].

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Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Dioscorea alataWater Yam, Purple yam, Greater yam, White yam41
Dioscorea batatasChinese Yam55
Dioscorea bulbiferaAerial Yam, Air Potato42
Dioscorea cayennensisYellow Yam, Yellow Guinea yam40
Dioscorea deltoideaYam22
Dioscorea esculentaLesser Yam, Potato Yam, Chinese Yam, Wild Yam40
Dioscorea japonicaGlutinous Yam, Japanese yam42
Dioscorea kamoonensis 21
Dioscorea tokoro 22
Dioscorea trifidaCush Cush Yam, Sweet yam40
Tamus communisBlack Bryony12
Test_20170320_2Aerial Yam, Air Potato42
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
43235
Links / References
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Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
CHUCK PETTUS Sun Oct 8 2006
I farm in New York State, just above the Pennsylvania border. Winters always have at least 10 days of below zero degrees F. Occasionally, temperatures reach 30 degrees below zero. I found some roots in Virginia about 20 years ago and the plants, both male and female appear to be acclimated to my farm conditions. The plants are located in full sun at the edge of the forest. The plants climb up to about 8 feet on the trees. In 20 years, I've only seen four new growths over 50 feet from the original plantings. Originally, I established 4 sites of both male and female plants separated by about 500 feet. About 15 years ago, I planted some Dioscorea Quatranata, male/female in the same area. D. Quatranata, sprouts up about a week before the D. Villosa, but climbs only between 4 and 6 feet. D. Quatranata seeds are noticeably larger than the D. Villosa, but are much less plentiful. Some years, including this year (2006) there were NO D. Quatranata seeds. This year (2006), there appeared an abundance of/more than usual of D. Villosa seeds. Last year (2005), I planted some cinnamon vines in the same area. They also survived the winter, climbed to less than 4 feet and produced about a dozen small (1/4 inch) bulbils. This summer (2006), I'm really daring some Florida obnoxious invasive D. Bulbifera to survive the upcoming (2007) winter. I have 8 D. Bulbifera growing well. They climbed between 6 and 8 feet. One plant has 7 bulbils, largest is over 1 inch across. I have 8 D. Bulbifera in a somewhat "COLD" temperature greenhouse where winter temperatures can drop below freezing to as low as 20 degrees. The greenhouse D. Bulbifera plants climbed to about 7 feet and NONE produced any bulbils. I have 4 D. Bulbifera outside in "POTS". They also climbed about 7 feet and did NOT produce any bulbils. Can anyone help me? I'm trying to find information on nutrition and toxins in YAM LEAVES. Over the years, I've cautiously sampled some "tea" from D. Villosa leaves. The Villosa leaf tea had a very pleasant "tea like" aroma. The tea was sweetend with concentrates from white grape juice and from apples. The taste "appeared" pleasant. I've tried "once" to make a tea from D. Quatranata. I did not like the aroma or the taste. Neither aroma or taste "appeared" bad. I just didn't like it and did not pursue D. Quatranata tea.
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Subject : Dioscorea villosa  

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