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Dimocarpus longan - Lour.
                 
Common Name Longan, Lungan, Dragon's Eye, Cat's Eye
Family Sapindaceae
USDA hardiness 8-10
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Humid mountain woodlands[ 307 ]. Usually found in the understorey of primary forests, sometimes in secondary formations[ 404 ].
Range E. Asia - China, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Longan, Dimocarpus longan, is a fast-growing, evergreen, well-branched, fruit tree that grows up to 14 m tall with a bole diameter of 1 m. It is native to Southern Asia. Its fruits are highly valued as a food and as a medicine. The fruit has a sweet mucilaginous flesh. It can be eaten raw or dried and preserved in syrup, cooked in sweet and sour dishes or in soups. Medicinally, the fruit is a stomachic, febrifuge and vermifuge, and an antidote for poison. Leaves, flowers, and seeds are also used in traditional medicine. Seeds and rind are burnt for fuel. The wood is used for posts, agricultural implements, furniture, construction, etc.

Dimocarpus longan Longan, Lungan, Dragon


International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Dimocarpus longan Longan, Lungan, Dragon
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Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Dimocarpus longan is an evergreen Tree growing to 12 m (39ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
Euphoria longan (Lour.) Steud. Euphoria longana Lam. Nephelium longana Cambess. Nephelium long-yan B

Habitats
Edible Uses
Fruit - raw or cooked. The mucilaginous flesh is whitish, translucent and somewhat sweet, though not as flavoursome as the related lychee(Litchi chinensis)[ 301 , 303 ]. It is delicious eaten raw and can also be dried, preserved in syrup, cooked in sweet and sour dishes or in soups[ 301 ]. The globose fruits are 12 - 25mm in diameter, with a thin, brittle, yellow-brown to light reddish-brown rind[ 303 ]. Longans are much eaten fresh, out-of-hand, but some have maintained that the fruit is improved by cooking[ 303 ]. In China, the majority are canned in syrup or dried. For drying, the fruits are first heated to shrink the flesh and facilitate peeling of the rind. Then the seeds are removed and the flesh dried over a slow fire[ 303 ]. The dried product is black, leathery and smoky in flavour and is mainly used to prepare an infusion drunk for refreshment[ 303 ].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



The flesh of the fruit is administered as a stomachic, febrifuge and vermifuge, and is regarded as an antidote for poison. A decoction of the dried flesh is taken as a tonic and treatment for insomnia and neurasthenic neurosis[ 303 ]. In both North and South Vietnam, the 'eye' of the longan seed is pressed against a snakebite in the belief that it will absorb the venom[ 303 ]. Leaves and flowers are sold in Chinese herb markets but are not a part of ancient traditional medicine. The leaves contain quercetin and quercitrin[ 303 ]. The seeds are administered to counteract heavy sweating and the pulverized kernel, which contains saponin, tannin and fat, serves as a styptic[ 303 ].
Other Uses
Small shade tree, Backyard tree, Small flowering tree, Specimen. Other Uses: The seeds, because of their saponin content, are used like soapberries (Sapindus saponaria L.) for shampooing the hair[ 303 ]. The seeds and the rind are burnt for fuel[ 303 ]. The heartwood is reddish brown it is not clearly demarcated from the lighter-coloured sapwood. The wood is strong, tough, very hard, difficult to split, highly durable, easily but slowly drying with little or no degradation. It is used for posts, agricultural implements, furniture, construction, shuttle pipes, bearings, textile weaving stands and rifle butts[ 303 , 404 , 451 ]. The wood is not highly valued for fuel[ 303 ].
Cultivation details
Whilst the longan succeeds in warm temperate to tropical areas, it requires a distinct cool season of up to 3 months with virtually no frost to initiate blooming[ 303 ] and so does not fruit well at low elevations in the tropics[ 335 ]. Flowering is poor after a warm winter and in areas with no clear cool season[ 303 ]. It needs chilling temperatures of about 7 - 12?c, or a 2 - 3 month period with temperatures about 15 - 22?c and a short dry period in order to stimulate flowering[ 303 ]. From fruit set onwards high temperatures do not hamper development, but nights should not be warmer than 20 - 25?c[ 303 ]. The temperature range for growth is reported to be 7 - 36?c with the optimum between 18 - 30?c[ 303 ]. Ample soil moisture is needed from fruit set until maturity; suitable annual precipitation is about 1,500 - 2,000mm[ 303 ]. The annual rainfall range for growth is reported to be 800 - 3,000mm[ 303 ]. Prefers some shade from the strongest sun[ 200 ]. Succeeds on most fertile soils so long as there is an abundance of moisture[ 200 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6, but can tolerate 5 - 8[ 404 ]. Seedling trees take 7 - 10 years to commence bearing fruit, whilst vegetatively propagated trees can fruit in 3 - 5 years[ 335 ]. Full-grown trees given sufficient room may yield 180 - 225 kg of fruit in good years. Larger trees have larger crops but if the trees become too tall harvesting is too difficult, and they should be topped[ 303 ]. A serious problem with the longan is its irregular bearing - often one good year is followed by 1 or 2 poor years[ 303 ]. There are some named varieties[ 200 , 301 ]. Trees are usually self-fertile[ 335 ]. Flowers mid spring.
Propagation
Most longan trees are grown from seed. After drying in the shade for 4 days, they should be planted without delay, but no more than 2 cm deep, otherwise they may send up more than one sprout[ 303 ]. Germination takes place within 7-10 days[ 303 ]. The seedlings are transplanted to shaded nursery rows the following spring and set in the field 2-3 years later during winter dormancy[ 303 ]. Air layering. Air-layers bear in 2-3 years after planting[ 303 ]. Grafting

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Other Names
Arillus longan, long yan, long yan rou, longan, longan aril, longan arillus, longanbaum, longanier, longyanrou, longán, mata kucing,Mien, Nhan, Lamyai, Laam-yai, Ihau, Loong narn, Mora, Lam-yai, Longyan, Dragon's eye, Lungan, Mata kuching, Ashphal, Wumb, Puvatti, Rongan, Shempuvan, Kanakindeli, Malakcota, Pasakotta, Shempuna, Poripuna, Mulei, Nagalichi, Naga lichu, Tokra, Diengloba, Kelengkeng, Longana, Olho-de-dragao, Long yean gan, Ryugan, Kath lichu, Mirgoch, Tegonog, Marli, Dieng-loba, Bambo, Buku, Dopar, Ihau, Mahau, Rupai, Takuhis, Theifei-mung, oeil de dragon
Found In
Asia, Australia, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, China*, Cook Islands, East Timor, Hawaii, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North America, Northeastern India, Pacific, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, SE Asia, Singapore, South America, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, USA, Vietnam,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Lower Risk/near threatened
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For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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Subject : Dimocarpus longan  

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