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Cuminum cyminum - L.
                 
Common Name Cumin - Jeera
Family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
USDA hardiness 8-12
Known Hazards May cause hypoglycaemia. Caution need for diabetics. Avoid if taking barbiturates [301]
Habitats Not known in a truly wild condition.
Range Europe to N. Africa and S.W.Asia? Original habitat is obscure.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Cumin or Cuminum cyminum is a flowering plant native to Pakistan and India. It is a well-branched, erect, annual plant that usually grows up to 30 cm in height. The leaves are long. The flowers are small and white or pink in color. Cumin seed is well-known food flavouring especially in tropical Asia. It has a hot and aromatic flavour and is often used in curries. The essential oil obtained from the seed is used as flavouring as well. Cumin is also used medicinally. In particular, it is used to stimulate the sexual organs and to treat minor digestive conditions, coughs, pain, and rotten teeth.

Cuminum cyminum Cumin - Jeera


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Cuminum cyminum Cumin - Jeera
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Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Cuminum cyminum is a ANNUAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 10-May It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
Cuminia cyminum. Cuminum aegyptiacum. Cuminum hispanicum. Cuminum sativum

Habitats
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed - cooked as a flavouring. Cumin seed was once widely used as a food flavouring in Europe, the Romans ground it into a powder and used it like pepper[ 268 ]. It is little used at present in Western cooking, though it is very commonly employed in India[ 268 ]. A hot and aromatic flavour, it is an important ingredient in curries, is used as a seasoning in soups and stews, and is also often used as a flavouring in biscuits, cakes and bread where it also helps in improving the digestion[ 1 , 4 , 14 , 21 , 27 , 46 , 132 , 171 , 244 , 418 ]. The seed is harvested when fully ripe and is then dried and stored in airtight jars[ 244 ]. An essential oil from the seed is used as a food flavouring[ 46 , 61 , 171 ]. According to the USDA, one tablespoon of cumin spice contains: 22 kcal (92 kJ) of food energy, 1.34 g (0.047 oz) of fat, 2.63 g (0.093 oz) of carbohydrates, 0.6 g (0.021 oz) of fibre and 1.07 g (0.038 oz) of protein.
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibacterial;  Antidiarrhoeal;  Antirheumatic;  Antispasmodic;  Aphrodisiac;  Carminative;  Galactogogue;  Poultice;  
Stimulant;  Stomachic.

Cumin is an aromatic, astringent herb that benefits the digestive system and acts as a stimulant to the sexual organs[ 238 ]. It has been used in the treatment of minor digestive complaints, chest conditions and coughs, as a pain killer and to treat rotten teeth[ 238 , 254 ]. Cumin is seldom used in Western herbal medicine, having been superseded by caraway which has similar properties but a more pleasant flavour[ 4 ]. It is still widely used in India, however[ 4 ] where it is said to promote the assimilation of other herbs and to improve liver function[ 238 ]. The seed is antispasmodic, carminative, galactagogue, stimulant and stomachic[ 4 , 46 , 240 , 254 ]. A general tonic to the whole digestive system, it is used in the treatment of flatulence and bloating, reducing intestinal gas and relaxing the gut as a whole[ 254 ]. In India it is also used in the treatment of insomnia, colds and fevers and to improve milk production in nursing mothers[ 254 ]. Ground into a powder and mixed into a paste with onion juice, it has been applied to scorpion stings[ 254 ]. The herb has been used externally as a poultice to relieve stitch and pains in the side[ 244 ]. The essential oil obtained from the seed is antibacterial and larvicidal[ 238 ].
Other Uses
Essential;  Insecticide.

The seed contains about 2.5% essential oil[ 240 ]. It is used in perfumery and for flavouring beverages[ 46 , 61 , 177 , 272 ].
Cultivation details
An annual plant, it is cultivated from low elevations in the warm temperate to higher elevations in tropical zones. It does not do well in lowland areas of the tropics, but is successful at higher elevations, being grown up to 2,200 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 17 - 26°c, but can tolerate 9 - 30°c[ 418 ]. The plant is intolerant of frost. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 - 1,800mm, but tolerates 800 - 2,700mm[ 418 ]. Tolerant of most well-drained soils[ 268 ], though it prefers a warm fertile well-drained sandy loam in a sheltered sunny position[ 14 , 200 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6.5, tolerating 4.5 - 8.3[ 418 ]. The plant can be harvested for its seed about 60 - 110 days after sowing[ 418 ]. Seed yields can be 500 - 1,200 kilos per hectare[ 418 ]. When bruised, the plant has a pungent aroma[ 245 ].
Propagation
Seed - sow early spring in individual pots in a greenhouse. Grow the plants on fast, and plant them out after the last expected frosts[ 200 ]. Give the plants some temporary protection such as a cloche for their first few weeks in the open ground to make sure that they keep on growing in the cooler weather of early summer[ K ].
Other Names
Also known as: Comino, Jeera, Jeerige, Jilakara, Jintan puteh, Jinten bodas, Jinten, Jira zeera, Jira, Jiraka jira, Jiraka, Jiregire, Jorekam, Kumin, Safed jeera, Siragam, Sududuru, Sulpha phul, Yeera, Zira-sufed.
Found In
Africa, Arabia, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, China, East Africa, Egypt, Ethiopia, Europe, France, Greece, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mediterranean, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, North Africa, North America, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, SE Asia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tasmania, Thailand, Turkey, Middle East, West Africa, Zambia.
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known
Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed.
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
PRAVIN PATEL Fri Oct 29 06:00:44 2004
We are interested in Manufacturing the OIL of Cumin. Can you suggest us for more other websites. Let us know what are the Exports Demand.
Elizabeth H.
Vijay patel Sat Dec 17 2005
Vijay patel - Rajkot, India. Cell: 098986 07770 We are interested to process cumin and extract oil. I want to know what is ration of yield % and which process is the best for production with best spesified quality? Only distilation is enough or it's required solvent extraction unit.and what is approximate rate of cumin oil in india
Elizabeth H.
MAGALA SWALEH BURHAAN Wed Mar 5 2008
I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW ALL ABOUT THE PLANT,BLACK CUMIN: 1-HOW TO OBTAIN SEEDS FOR PLANTING 2-CAN THIS PLANT GROW IN UGANDA? 3-CAN PAYMENT BE SENT BY WESTERN UNION? 4-ITS PROSESING AND USES
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Subject : Cuminum cyminum  

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