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Copaifera multijuga - Hayne
                 
Common Name Hayne oil, Copaiba,
Family Fabaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rainforest[ 238 ].
Range S. America - Brazil.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Tender Well drained soil Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade

Summary
Copaifera multijug is a large evergreen tree found in the rainforests in South America. It is one of the most important species producing copaiba-balsam, an oleoresin from the bark of the tree that has long been used medicinally and for other purposes. It is usually harvested from the wild and is exported in many countries. A single tree can produce about 40 litres of oleoresin annually. It is harvested by tapping or drilling holes into the wood of the trunk. The resin is used as a food additive and as flavouring agents in food and beverages. It is also used in perfumery, cosmetics, varnishes and lacquers, and as substitute to diesel oil. Medicinally, it is used to treat various conditions in the skin, urinary tract, respiratory system, and reproductive systems. It can also be used for pain relief, headache, sore throat and mouth sores. Found In: South America - Brazil. other Names: Copahiba, Copaiba, Copaibera

Copaifera multijuga Hayne oil, Copaiba,


scielo.br
Copaifera multijuga Hayne oil, Copaiba,
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Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Copaifera multijuga is an evergreen Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
No synonyms are recorded for this name.

Habitats
Edible Uses
The resin has been approved officially in the U.S. as a food additive and is used in small amounts as a flavouring agent in foods and beverages[ 318 ].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



Copaiba-balsam, an oily oleo-resin obtained from the trunk of the tree, has a very long history of use medicinally. It was widely used by the native peoples prior to the Europeans reaching S. America and these uses were soon taken up by the Europeans[ 317 ]. The resin is especially valued for its ability to counter mucous in the chest and genito-urinary system[ 254 ]. The resin is an aromatic, stimulant herb with a bitter, burning taste[ 238 ]. Both it and the bark are anodyne, antacid, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, cytostatic, demulcent, digestive, disinfectant, diuretic, expectorant, mildly laxative, vermifuge and vulnerary[ 318 ]. The resin obtained from the trunk contains a number of medically active constituents including 30 - 90% essential oils and unusual condensed tannins[ 238 ]. The essential oil contains alpha- and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes, resins and terpenic acids[ 254 ]. It improves the digestion, has diuretic and expectorant effects, and controls bacterial infections[ 238 ]. Much of the clinical research performed to date has verified the traditional uses of copaiba. It has, for instance, been shown to be highly effective as a topical wound healer and anti-inflammatory agent[ 318 ]. The anti-inflammatory effect is mainly due to the sesquiterpenes, particularly caryophyllene which has also demonstrated effective pain-relieving properties, antifungal properties against nail fungus and gastroprotective properties[ 318 ]. The resin as a whole (and, particularly, two of its diterpenes - copalic acid and kaurenic acid) has demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria. One of copaiba?s other chemicals, kaurenoic acid, has also demonstrated selective antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria in other recent studies[318. Other constituents of the resin have demonstrated significant antitumor activity[ 318 ]. The resin is taken internally in the treatment of a range of respiratory problems such as tuberculosis, bronchitis and sinusitis; urinary tract and reproductive system conditions such as cystitis, kidney and bladder infections, vaginal discharge and gonorrhoea[ 238 , 254 ]. Stomach ulcers, tetanus, herpes, pleurisy and haemorrhages are just some of the other conditions treated with the resin[ 318 ]. Externally, it is used in the treatment of a range of skin problems including insect bites, eczema, chilblains, sores and psoriasis[ 238 , 254. It is also used to treat wounds and stop bleeding[ 318 ]. As an antiseptic gargle, it is used to treat sore throats and tonsillitis[ 318 ]. The resin should be used with care, see notes above on toxicity[ 238 ]. The resin is tapped at intervals from the tree and the holes filled in afterwards[ 238 ]. It is used in infusions or distilled for its essential oil[ 238 ].
Other Uses
Other Uses: An oleoresin is obtained from the tree[ 46 ]. A delightful, coumarin-like aroma[ 238 ]. It is an important fixative in perfumes - especially those with violet, woody or spicy notes[ 238 , 318 ]. Today in the United States, copaiba resin is used mostly as a fragrance component in perfumes and in cosmetic preparations (including soaps, bubble baths, detergents, creams, and lotions) for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and emollient (soothing and softening) properties[ 318 ]. The resin is also used in varnishes and lacquers[ 238 ]. The resin can be used, direct from the tree, as a substitute for diesel oil[ 238 ]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[ 46 ]. The heartwood is pink to red-brown with copper-coloured veins; it is clearly demarcated from the 2 - 3cm wide band of sapwood. The texture is medium; the grain straight or interlocked, sometimes wavy. The wood is light to very light in weight, soft to moderately hard; somewhat durable being resistant to dry wood borers but susceptible to fungi and termites. It seasons quickly with very little risk of checking or distortion; once dry it is moderately stable to stable in service. It can be worked with normal tools, though they need to be kept sharp to avoid fuzzy surfaces; nailing and screwing are often poor; gluing is correct. The wood has a wide range of uses, including for light carpentry, interior panelling and joinery, flooring, boxes and crates, furniture, veneer and fibre boards[ 46 , 848 ].
Cultivation details
Industrial Crop: Hydrocarbon;  Industrial Crop: Medicinal;  Management: Standard;  Regional Resin Crop.

A plant of the moister tropics, it requires a high humidity and a minimum temperature that does not fall much below 13?c[ 238 ]. Prefers a well-drained sandy soil and a position in shade[ 238 ]. A single copaiba tree can provide about 40 litres of oleoresin annually, making it a sustainable rainforest resource that can be harvested without destroying the tree or the forest in which it grows[ 318 ]. Trees can yield up to 55 litres of resin per year[ 238 ]. The resin accumulates in cavities within the tree trunk and is harvested by tapping or drilling holes into the wood of the trunk and collecting the resin that drips out, much in the same manner as harvesting maple syrup[ 318 ]. When tapped, the initial oily resin is clear, thin, and colourless; it thickens and darkens upon contact with air[ 318 ]. Commercially sold resins are a thick, clear liquid, with a colour that varies from pale yellow to golden light brown[ 318 ].
Propagation
Seed - Firm softwood cuttings[ 238 ].
Other Names
Copaifera multijug or Hayne Oil, other Names: Copahiba, Copaiba, Copaibera
Found In
Found In: South America - Brazil.
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

None Known
Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Copaifera coriaceaSapucaia tree24
Copaifera guyanensisHoepel, Guyanense Copaiba24
Copaifera langsdorffiiCopaiba, Langsdorf's copaifera14
Copaifera officinalisCopaiba Balsam, Medicinal Copaiba24
Copaifera reticulataCopaiba, Reticulated Copaiba, Copaiba Balsam04
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Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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