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Clematis - (Thunb.)Koidz.                
                 
Common Name Akebia, Threeleaf Akebia
Family Lardizabalaceae
Synonyms Clematis trifoliata. A. lobata.
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rocky places in woods and thickets to 1800 metres[58]. Semideciduous forest margins, open forest along valleys, scrub on hillsides and by streams at elevations of 200 - 2100 metres[266].
Range E. Asia - China, Japan, Korea.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: Purple, Red Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Variable height, Variable spread.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of climber
Clematis is a deciduous Climber growing to 9 m (29ft 6in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant)

USDA hardiness zone : 5-8


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Clematis Akebia, Threeleaf  Akebia


(c) ken Fern, Plants For A Future 2010
Clematis Akebia, Threeleaf  Akebia
(c) ken Fern, Plants For A Future 2010
   
Habitats       
Edible Uses                                         
Fruit - raw. Sweet but insipid[2, 3, 46, 61, 105]. The fruit has a delicate flavour and a soft juicy texture[K]. The flavour can be enhanced by the addition of a little lemon juice. Valued more as a novelty, the fruit looks somewhat like a deep-purple coloured sausage[183]. The fruit is 7 - 13cm long[200]. The dried young leaves are used as a tea substitute[46, 61, 105, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



The stems are analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor. blood tonic, cardiotonic, diuretic, emmenagogue and galactogogue[147, 176]. Taken internally, it controls gram-positive bacterial and fungal infections and is used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lack of menstruation, to improve lactation etc[176, 238]. The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238].
Other Uses
The peeled stems are very pliable. They can be bleached and used in basket making[46, 61].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Arbor. Requires a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil[11, 200]. Succeeds in acid or alkaline soils[200]. Prefers partial shade but succeeds in full sun[3, 200]. Grows well on a north facing wall[219]. Dormant plants are hardy to about -20°c but they can be somewhat tender when young[200]. Another report says that this species is not as hardy as A. quinata, only tolerating temperatures down to -10°c. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. This species grows very well in S.W. England. Resentful of root disturbance, either grow plants in containers prior to planting them out or plant them out whilst very young[219]. Plants are evergreen in mild winters[11]. Fast growing, it can be invasive. It grows well on deciduous trees[28]. Plants are not normally pruned, if they are growing too large they can be cut back by trimming them with shears in early spring[202]. Plants are shy to fruit, they possibly require some protection in the flowering season, hand pollination is advisable[3, 11]. Plants are probably self-sterile[182], if possible at least 2 plants should be grown, each from a different source. The flowers are sweetly scented[245]. The fruits are sold in local markets in Japan[46]. The ssp. A. trifoliata australis. (Diels.)Rehd. is used medicinally in China[176]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Surface sow in a light position[133]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c[133]. Stored seed should be given 1 month cold stratification[113, 133] and can be very difficult to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[11, 113]. The cuttings can be slow to root[200]. Cuttings can also be taken of soft wood in spring[113]. Root cuttings, December in a warm greenhouse[113]. Layering in early spring[1]. Very easy, the plants usually self-layer and so all you need to do is dig up the new plants and plant them out directly into their permanent positions.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(Thunb.)Koidz.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1158200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[28]Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade.
A small but informative booklet listing plants that can be grown in shady positions with a few cultivation details.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[58]Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation)
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[133]Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
[147]? A Barefoot Doctors Manual.
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
[176]Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas.
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
[182]Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[202]Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs.
Contains information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.
[219]Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls
A nice little book about plants for growing against walls and a small section on plants that can grow in walls.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[245]Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
[266] Flora of China
On-line version of the Flora - an excellent resource giving basic info on habitat and some uses.

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Subject : Clematis  
             

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