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Citrus sinensis - (L.)Osbeck.                
                 
Common Name Sweet Orange
Family Rutaceae
Synonyms C. aurantium sinensis.
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Original habitat is obscure, possibly an introgressed hybrid of C. maxima x C. reticulata[200].
Range Original range is obscure, possible Asia in southern China and Vietnam.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Early winter, Late spring, Late winter, Mid spring, Mid winter. Form: Rounded.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of cone
Citrus sinensis is an evergreen Tree growing to 9 m (29ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Apomictic, insects.The plant is self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : 9-11


Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Citrus sinensis Sweet Orange


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Histoire_et_culture_des_orangers_A._Risso_et_A._Poiteau._--_Paris_Henri_Plon,_Editeur,_1872.jpg
Citrus sinensis Sweet Orange
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:EugeneZelenko Citrus x meyeri
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; South Wall. By. West Wall. By.
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Fruit;  Oil.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Oil;  Tea.

Fruit - raw. Sweet and delicious[1, 3, 46, 61]. The juice is often extracted from the fruit and sold as a refreshing and healthy drink or used in jellies, ice cream etc[183]. The rind of the fruit is often used as a flavouring in cakes etc or made into marmalade[1, 46, 183]. Flowers - cooked as a vegetable or made into a tea[183].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Appetizer;  Blood purifier;  Carminative;  Miscellany;  Skin;  Tonic.

Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people[238]. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics[238]. The fruit is appetizer and blood purifier[240]. It is used to allay thirst in people with fevers and also treats catarrh[240]. The fruit juice is useful in the treatment of bilious affections and bilious diarrhoea[240]. The fruit rind is carminative and tonic[240]. The fresh rind is rubbed on the face as a cure for acne[240]. The dried peel is used in the treatment of anorexia, colds, coughs etc[218].
Other Uses
Essential;  Miscellany;  Oil.

A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making[46, 61]. An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines[1, 46, 61].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Espalier, Standard, Specimen. Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added and a very sunny position[1, 200]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 6[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Plants are intolerant of water logging[3]. When growing plants in pots, a compost comprising equal quantities of loam and leafmould plus a little charcoal should produce good results[260]. Do not use manure since Citrus species dislike it[260]. When watering pot plants it is important to neither overwater or underwater since the plant will soon complain by turning yellow and dying. Water only when the compost is almost dry, but do not allow it to become completely dry[260]. The sweet orange is widely grown for its edible fruit in warm temperate and tropical zones, there are many named varieties[183]. In Britain it can be grown in a pot placed outdoors in the summer and brought into a greenhouse during the winter[3]. Plants are almost hardy in the mildest areas of Britain[1] but the fruit is insipid if it is developed when the mean temperature is below 18°c[3]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. The flowers are sweetly scented[245]. Plants dislike root disturbance and so should be placed into their permanent positions when young. If growing them in pots, great care must be exercised when potting them on into larger containers[238]. Special Features:Edible, Not North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it ripe after thoroughly rinsing it[164, 200]. Sow stored seed in March in a greenhouse[3]. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 3 weeks at 13°c. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. The seed is usually polyembrionic, two or more seedlings arise from each seed and they are genetically identical to the parent but they do not usually carry any virus that might be present in the parent plant[200]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least three growing seasons before trying them outdoors. Plant them out in the summer and give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Layering in October.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(L.)Osbeck.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[164]Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[218]Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[240]Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[245]Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
[260]Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2
Excellent photos of over 1,100 species and cultivars with habits and cultivation details plus a few plant uses. Many species are too tender for outdoors in Britain though there are many that can be grown outside.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Gurpreet Singh Sun Jan 7 2007
Need advice on possibility of inter-cropping citrus with lemongrass
Elizabeth H.
Joyson Kamei Wed Sep 17 2008
what is the common name of citrus sinensis?
Elizabeth H.
david n Wed Sep 17 2008
The common name is Orange, this is the common Orange you'll find in any fruit shop.
Elizabeth H.
dhukate Sun Sep 28 2008
method of tissue culture lime plant production
Elizabeth H.
caroline Fri Feb 13 2009
what are the defense mechanisms of this plant?
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Subject : Citrus sinensis  
             

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