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Cichorium endivia - L.
                 
Common Name Endive
Family Asteraceae [Compositae]
USDA hardiness Coming soon
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Rocks and sand by the sea[89].
Range S. Europe to E. Asia - India.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary

Cichorium endivia Endive


Cichorium endivia Endive
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Cichorium endivia is a BIENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.3 m (1ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms

Habitats
Edible Uses
Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 16, 27, 33, 46, 52, 171]. Leaves of wild plants are very bitter but there are many named forms with only a slight bitterness[183]. The leaves are quite large and often form a rosette like cabbages. They are very easy to harvest. Endive makes a very acceptable addition, in moderate quantities, to the salad bowl, though the leaves are too bitter for most tastes to be used as the main salad leaf[K]. The leaves are often blanched (by excluding light from the growing plant) in order to reduce this bitterness[200], though this process also reduces the nutritional value of the plant[K].
Medicinal Uses
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The plant is used as a resolvent and cooling medicine, and in the treatment of bilious complaints[240]. It has a similar but milder effect to chicory (Cichorium intybus) and so is a very beneficial tonic to the liver and digestive system[254]. The root is demulcent and tonic[240]. It has been used in the treatment of dyspepsia and fevers[240]. The fruit (this probably means the seed[K]) has been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, bilious complaints and jaundice[240].
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Succeeds in any moderately fertile well-drained soil[200]. Prefers a medium to light sandy or gravelly soil that is rich in humus[1, 34, 37]. Prefers a sunny position[200] but with light shade in the summer to prevent plants running to seed[33]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.3 to 8.3. Endive is often cultivated, especially in Europe, for its edible leaves[46], there are many named varieties[183]. These varieties can be divided into two main types, the plain-leafed and the curly-leafed. Although more decorative, the curly-leafed forms are less suitable for late autumn/winter use because they are less hardy and their leaves tend to hold moisture and therefore encourage mildew and other disease problems[200, K]. In Britain, the plants grow best in Cornwall[142]. Through successional sowing, and careful selection of varieties, it is possible to obtain leaves all year round[K]. The main season of availability is autumn to early winter, though this can be extended through the winter if the plants are given protection[200]. A combination of low temperatures and short days causes the plants to flower[200].
Propagation
Seed - sow in situ early to mid July for an autumn and winter crop and up to mid August for succession. Seedlings can be transplanted[200]. Successional sowings can also be made from April onwards for a summer crop though these plants are liable to bolt in hot weather or if there is a cold snap in late spring[1, 200].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Cichorium intybusChicory, Radicchio, Succory, Witloof43
Cichorium spinosum 20
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Author
L.
Botanical References
200
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Subject : Cichorium endivia  

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