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Chenopodium album - L.                
                 
Common Name Fat Hen, Lambsquarters, Missouri lambsquarters, Stevens' lambsquarters, Lateflowering goosefoot, W
Family Chenopodiaceae
USDA hardiness Coming soon
Known Hazards The leaves and seeds of all members of this genus are more or less edible. However, many of the species in this genus contain saponins, though usually in quantities too small to do any harm. Although toxic, saponins are poorly absorbed by the body and most pass straight through without any problem. They are also broken down to a large extent in the cooking process. Saponins are found in many foods, such as some beans. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K]. The plants also contain some oxalic acid, which in large quantities can lock up some of the nutrients in the food, but these plants are very nutritious vegetables in reasonable quantities. Cooking the plant will reduce its content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition[238]. There is also a report that very large quantities of the leaves have caused photosensitivity in some people[74]. Only the raw leaves can cause problems, and then only if large quantities are consumed[172]. A further report says that if the plant is grown in soils that contain too much nitrates then the plant can concentrate these substances in the leaves. Nitrates have been shown to cause many health problems including stomach cancers and blue-baby syndrome. In nitrogen-rich soils, the plants can also concentrate hydrogen cyanide[218]. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Habitats A common weed of cultivated ground, especially on rich soils and old manure heaps[4, 17]. It is often one of the first weeds to appear on newly cultivated soils[268].
Range Most of Europe, including Britain, north to 71° N,. N. and S. Africa, Asia, Australia and N. America
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       
Form: Irregular or sprawling.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of flower
Chenopodium album is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
C. reticulatum.
Chenopodium album Fat Hen, Lambsquarters,  	Missouri lambsquarters, Stevens


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chenopodium_album_Sturm27.jpg
Chenopodium album Fat Hen, Lambsquarters,  	Missouri lambsquarters, Stevens
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chenopodium_album_ENBLA03.jpg
   
Habitats
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses:

Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 5, 9, 12, 20, 54, 62, 102]. A very acceptable spinach substitute[183], the taste is a little bland but this can be improved by adding a few stronger-flavoured leaves[9]. One report says that, when eaten with beans, the leaves will act as a carminative to prevent wind and bloating[257]. The leaves are best not eaten raw, see the notes above on toxicity[74]. The leaves are generally very nutritious but very large quantities can disturb the nervous system and cause gastric pain[74]. The leaves contain about 3.9% protein, 0.76% fat, 8.93% carbohydrate, 3% ash[179]. A zero moisture basis analysis is also available[218]. Edible seed - dried and ground into a meal and eaten raw or baked into a bread[[2, 4, 12, 14, 54, 102, 183]. The seed can also be sprouted and added to salads[183]. The seed is very fiddly to harvest and use due to its small size[9]. Although it is rather small, we have found the seed very easy to harvest and simple enough to utilize[K]. The seed should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before being used in order to remove any saponins. The seed contains about 49% carbohydrate, 16% protein, 7% ash, 5.88% ash[114, 179]. Young inflorescences - cooked[183]. A tasty broccoli substitute[K].
Composition                                         
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)
  • 260 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 24g; Fat: 5g; Carbohydrate: 45g; Fibre: 15g; Ash: 28g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 2300mg; Phosphorus: 500mg; Iron: 25mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 31583mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.67mg; Riboflavin (B2): 1.58mg; Niacin: 2.5mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes: The figures are the median of a range given in the report.
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic;  Antiphlogistic;  Antirheumatic;  Contraceptive;  Laxative;  Odontalgic.

Fat hen is not employed in herbal medicine, though it does have some gentle medicinal properties and is a very nutritious and healthy addition to the diet[268]. The leaves are anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, mildly laxative, odontalgic[172, 222, 243, 268]. An infusion is taken in the treatment of rheumatism[257]. The leaves are applied as a wash or poultice to bug bites, sunstroke, rheumatic joints and swollen feet, whilst a decoction is used for carious teeth[218]. The seeds are chewed in the treatment of urinary problems and are considered useful for relieving the discharge of semen through the urine[272]. The juice of the stems is applied to freckles and sunburn[218]. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of bloody dysentery[272]. Food that comprises 25.5% of the powdered herb may suppress the oestrus cycle[218].
Other Uses
Dye;  Soap.

A green dye is obtained from the young shoots[99]. The crushed fresh roots are a mild soap substitute[106].
Cultivation details                                         
An easily grown plant, succeeding in most soils but disliking shade[1, 200]. It prefers a moderately fertile soil[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3. In moderate amounts this plant is a good companion for potatoes, corn and cucurbits[20, 54]. The plant responds directly to the magnesium content of the soil so it can be used to indicate the presence of that element[114]. Fat hen is occasionally cultivated as a food crop[46], there is at least one named variety[183]. Called 'Magenta' in reference to the colour of its leaves, it is considered by some people to be the best tasting of all potherbs[183]. Special Features:North American native.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow spring in situ. Most of the seed usually germinates within a few days of sowing. It is usually unnecessary to sow the seed since the plant is a common garden weed and usually self-sows freely in most soils.
Related Plants                                         
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Chenopodium acuminatum 20
Chenopodium ambrosioidesMexican Tea23
Chenopodium ambrosioides anthelminticumWormseed23
Chenopodium auricomumQueensland Bluebush20
Chenopodium berlandieriSouthern Huauzontle, Pitseed goosefoot, Nuttall's goosefoot, Bush's goosefoot, Zschack's goosefoot20
Chenopodium bonus-henricusGood King Henry42
Chenopodium botrysJerusalem Oak, Jerusalem oak goosefoot22
Chenopodium bushianumBush's goosefoot20
Chenopodium californicumCalifornia Goosefoot21
Chenopodium canihua 20
Chenopodium capitatumStrawberry Blite, Blite goosefoot31
Chenopodium cristatumCrested Goosefoot21
Chenopodium ficifoliumFig-Leaved Goosefoot20
Chenopodium foliosumLeafy goosefoot30
Chenopodium fremontiiGoosefoot, Fremont's goosefoot, Pringle's goosefoot20
Chenopodium giganteumTree Spinach30
Chenopodium glaucumOak-Leaved Goosefoot20
Chenopodium graveolensFoetid Goosefoot21
Chenopodium hybridum 21
Chenopodium incanumMealy Goosefoot20
Chenopodium leptophyllumNarrow Leaved Goosefoot20
Chenopodium muraleNettleleaf Goosefoot20
Chenopodium nuttalliaeHuauzontle, Nuttall's goosefoot40
Chenopodium opulifoliumSeaport goosefoot20
Chenopodium overiOver's goosefoot20
Chenopodium pallidicauleCañihua30
Chenopodium polyspermumAll-Seed, Manyseed goosefoot20
Chenopodium pratericolaDesert Goosefoot20
Chenopodium quinoaQuinoa40
12
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