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Capsicum annuum - L.
                 
Common Name Sweet Pepper, Cayenne Pepper, Chili Pepper, Christmas Pepper, Red Pepper, Ornamental Chili Pepper
Family Solanaceae
USDA hardiness 10-11
Known Hazards Pungent-fruited peppers may cause painful irritation when used in excess, or after accidental contact with the eyes[238]. Although no reports have been seen for this species, many plants in this family produce toxins in their leaves. The sap of the plant can cause the skin to blister[200]. Avoid in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants and antihypertensive drugs [301].
Habitats Not known in the wild.
Range Probably native of the Tropics, but the original habitat is obscure.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Upright or erect.

Capsicum annuum Sweet Pepper,  Cayenne Pepper, Chili Pepper, Christmas Pepper,  Red Pepper, Ornamental Chili  Pepper


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Koeh-027.jpg
Capsicum annuum Sweet Pepper,  Cayenne Pepper, Chili Pepper, Christmas Pepper,  Red Pepper, Ornamental Chili  Pepper
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:KENPEI
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Capsicum annuum is an evergreen Perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
Capsicum abyssinicum. Capsicum angulosum. Capsicum axi. Capsicum ustulatum

Habitats
 Cultivated Beds; South Wall. By. West Wall. By.
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Fruit;  Leaves.
Edible Uses: Colouring;  Condiment.

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 33, 105, 132]. Some varieties are very hot (the chilli and cayenne peppers) and are normally used as a pungent flavouring whilst milder varieties (the sweet peppers) have a very pleasant flavour with a slight sweetness and are often eaten raw in salads etc[142, 238]. The dried fruits of chilli and cayenne peppers is ground into a powder and used as a pungent flavouring called paprika[238]. The powder from the dried ground fruit of some cultivars is added to food as a colouring[183]. The fruits range widely in size and shape, from a few centimetres long to more than 30cm[200]. Young leaves are said to be edible[105] but some caution is advised. They are steamed as a potherb or added to soups and stews[183]. The leaves contain about 4 - 6% protein[183]. Seed - dried, ground into a powder and used as a pepper[2]. Flowers - raw or cooked[201].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antidiarrhoeal;  Antiemetic;  Antihaemorrhoidal;  Antirheumatic;  Antispasmodic;  Appetizer;  Digestive;  Irritant;  
Rubefacient;  Sialagogue.

The fruit of the hot, pungent cultivars is antihaemorrhoidal when taken in small amounts, antirheumatic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, digestive, irritant, rubefacient, sialagogue and tonic[7, 238]. It is taken internally in the treatment of the cold stage of fevers, debility in convalescence or old age, varicose veins, asthma and digestive problems[238]. Externally it is used in the treatment of sprains, unbroken chilblains, neuralgia, pleurisy etc[238]. It is an effective sea-sickness preventative[7]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Capsicum for muscular tension, rheumatism (see [302] for critics of commission E).
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses: Border, Container, Massing, Seashore, Specimen. Requires a very warm sunny position and a fertile well-drained soil. Prefers a light sandy soil that is slightly acid[201]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Plants can tolerate a small amount of frost[171], but this species does not normally do well outdoors in an average British summer and so it is usually grown in a greenhouse in this country[1]. However, if a very warm sheltered position outdoors is chosen then reasonable crops could be obtained in good summers. This species is widely grown throughout the world, but especially in warm temperate to tropical climates, for its edible fruit - the sweet and chilli peppers. There are many named varieties[183]. There are five basic forms of fruits, each form having various varieties. These forms are:- Cerasiforme. These have small cherry-shaped pungent fruits. Conioides. These fruits are cone-shaped and up to 5cm long. Many of them are grown as ornamentals, but some are also cultivated for food.. Fasciculatum. Also cone-shaped, but with pungent red fruits up to 7.5cm long. Grossum. These are the sweet peppers with large bell-shaped fruits and thick flesh. Longum. These are the cultivated hot cayenne and chilli peppers with long thin fruits up to 30cm long. The pungency of peppers depends upon the presence of a single gene, cultivars that lack this gene are the sweet peppers[238]. A short-lived evergreen perennial in the tropics[200], though the plants are grown as annuals in temperate zones[188]. Sweet pepper plants are good companions for basil and okra[20, 201]. They should not be grown near apricot trees, however, because a fungus that the pepper is prone to can cause a lot of harm to the apricot tree[201]. Special Features:Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - sow late winter to early spring in a warm greenhouse[138]. The seed usually germinates in 3 - 4 weeks at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots of reasonably rich soil and grow them on fast. If trying them outdoors, then plant them out after the last expected frosts and give them the protection of a cloche or frame at least until they are established and growing away well.
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Capsicum baccatumLocoto, Aji33
Capsicum chinenseBonnet Pepper, Chinese capsicum34
Capsicum frutescensTabasco Pepper, Cayenne pepper34
Capsicum pubescensTree Pepper, Rocoto33
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
chile Fri May 29 2009
No mention of clearing nasal cavity?
Elizabeth H.
Tue Dec 8 2009
wlang leaves ?
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Subject : Capsicum annuum  

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