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Betula alleghaniensis - Britton.
                 
Common Name Yellow Birch, Swamp Birch
Family Betulaceae
USDA hardiness 3-7
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Usually found in moist well-drained soils in rich woodlands on lower slopes, it is also found in cool marshlands in the south of its range[62, 229].
Range North-eastern N. America - Newfoundland to Virginia and Tennessee.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Green, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval.

Betula alleghaniensis Yellow Birch, Swamp Birch


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Boréal
Betula alleghaniensis Yellow Birch, Swamp Birch
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Boréal
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Betula alleghaniensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 12 m (39ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
B. lutea.

Habitats
Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark;  Sap.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Sweetener;  Tea.

Inner bark - cooked or dried and ground into a powder and used with cereals in making bread[62]. Inner bark is generally only seen as a famine food, used when other forms of starch are not available or are in short supply[K]. Sap - raw or cooked. A sweet flavour[62, 102, 161, 177]. The sap is harvested in early spring, before the leaves unfurl, by tapping the trunk. It flows abundantly, but the sugar content is much lower than maple sap[226]. A pleasant drink, it can also be concentrated into a syrup or fermented into a beer[183, 226]. An old English recipe for the beer is as follows:- "To every Gallon of Birch-water put a quart of Honey, well stirr'd together; then boil it almost an hour with a few Cloves, and a little Limon-peel, keeping it well scumm'd. When it is sufficiently boil'd, and become cold, add to it three or four Spoonfuls of good Ale to make it work...and when the Test begins to settle, bottle it up . . . it is gentle, and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly sharpens the Appetite, being drunk ante pastum."[269]. A tea is made from the twigs and leaves[62, 177]. The dried leaves are used according to another report[183]. An excellent flavour[226]. The twigs and leaves have the flavour of wintergreen and can be used as condiments[183].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseborrheic;  Cathartic;  Emetic.

Yellow birch is little used medicinally, though a decoction of the bark has been used by the native North American Indians as a blood purifier, acting to cleanse the body by its emetic and cathartic properties[257]. The bark is a source of 'Oil of Wintergreen'[226]. This does have medicinal properties, though it is mainly used as a flavouring in medicines[226].
Other Uses
Containers;  Fuel;  Waterproofing;  Wood.

The bark is waterproof and has been used by native peoples as the outer skin of canoes, as roofing material on dwellings and to make containers such as buckets, baskets and dishes[257]. Wood - close-grained, very strong, hard, heavy. The wood is too dense to float[226]. An important source of hardwood lumber, it is used for furniture, boxes, tubs of wheels, floors etc[46, 61, 82, 171, 229]. It is also often used as a fuel[46, 61].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Specimen, Woodland garden. Succeeds in a well-drained loamy soil in a sheltered position[11, 200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Dislikes wet soils[200]. Shade tolerant[200]. A slow-growing tree, it is relatively long-lived for a birch, with specimens 200 years old recorded[229]. Plants often grow taller than the 12 metres mentioned above[229]. The trees are highly susceptible to forest fires, even when wet the bark is highly inflammable[226]. The bruised foliage has a strong smell of wintergreen[200]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[50]. Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame[78, 80, 113, 134]. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in a sunny position[78, 80, 134]. Spring sown seed should be surface sown in a sunny position in a cold frame[113, 134]. If the germination is poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can help[134]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed, either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring - do not cover the spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter[78, 80, 113, 134].

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Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
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12
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Expert comment
 
Author
Britton.
Botanical References
1143200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
David Beaulieu Tue Jan 24 2006

Yellow Birch Trees Information for homeowners interested in growing yellow birch trees.

Elizabeth H.
c. Thu Nov 26 2009
"The trees are highly susceptible to forest fires, even when wet the bark is highly inflammable[226]." Did you mean to caution that yellow birch is highly 'flammable'?
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Subject : Betula alleghaniensis  

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