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Anethum graveolens - L.                
                 
Common Name Dill
Family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
Synonyms Peucedanum graveolens.
Known Hazards Dill is said to contain the alleged 'psychotroph' myristicine[218]. There are also reports that dill can cause photosensitivity and or dermatitis in some people[218]. Avoid dill oil during pregnancy.
Habitats Fields, waste places etc in the Mediterranean[100].
Range W. Asia. Naturalized in Europe in the Mediterranean[100].
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Frost Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of flower
Anethum graveolens is a ANNUAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in leaf 11-May It is in flower from Apr to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.


USDA hardiness zone : Coming soon


Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Anethum graveolens Dill


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Illustration_Anethum_graveolens0.jpg
Anethum graveolens Dill
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Maksim
   
Habitats       
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Tea.

Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 9, 14, 21]. Used as a flavouring in salads etc[132, 183]. The leaves lose their flavour if the are cooked for any length of time and so are best used raw or added to cooked dishes only a few minutes before the cooking is complete[244]. The leaves can be harvested at any time the plant is growing, but are best just before the plant flowers[244]. Per 100g, the plant contains 253 calories, 7.2g water, 20g protein, 4.4g fat, 55.8g carbohydrate, 11.9g fibre, 12.6g ash, 1784mg calcium, 543mg phosphorus, 48.8mg iron, 451mg magnesium, 208mg sodium, 3,308mg potassium, 3.3mg zinc, 0.42mg thiamine, 0.28mg riboflavin, 2.8mg niacin and 1.5mg vitamin B6[218]. Seed - raw or cooked. Very pungent and bitter in taste[4]. It is used as a flavouring in salads, preserves etc[2, 7, 9, 21, 46, 183], its chief uses being perhaps in making dill vinegar and as a flavouring in pickled gherkins[4]. It can also be sprouted and used in breads, soups and salad dressings[183]. Per 100g, the seed contains 305 calories, 7.7g water, 14.5g fat (0.73g saturated, 124mg phytosterol and no cholesterol), 55.2g carbohydrate, 21g fibre, 6.7g ash, 1,516mg calcium, 277mg phosphorus, 16.3mg iron, 256mg magnesium, 20mg sodium, 1,186mg potassium, 5.2mg zinc, 53IU vitamin A, 0.42mg thiamine and 0.28mg riboflavin[218]. An essential oil from the seed is used as a flavouring in the food industry[46, 105]. A tea is made from the leaves and/or the seeds[183].
Composition                                         
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Fresh weight)
  • 253 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 7.2%
  • Protein: 20g; Fat: 4.4g; Carbohydrate: 55.8g; Fibre: 11.9g; Ash: 12.6g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 1784mg; Phosphorus: 543mg; Iron: 48.8mg; Magnesium: 451mg; Sodium: 208mg; Potassium: 3308mg; Zinc: 3.3mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.42mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.28mg; Niacin: 2.8mg; B6: 1.5mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [ ]
  • Notes:
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antihalitosis;  Aromatic;  Carminative;  Diuretic;  Galactogogue;  Stimulant;  Stomachic.

Dill has a very long history of herbal use going back more than 2,000 years. The seeds are a common and very effective household remedy for a wide range of digestive problems. An infusion is especially efficacious in treating gripe in babies and flatulence in young children. The seed is aromatic, carminative, mildly diuretic, galactogogue, stimulant and stomachic[4, 21, 46, 165]. It is also used in the form of an extracted essential oil[243]. Used either in an infusion, or by eating the seed whole, the essential oil in the seed relieves intestinal spasms and griping, helping to settle colic[254]. Chewing the seed improves bad breath[254]. Dill is also a useful addition to cough, cold and flu remedies, it can be used with antispasmodics such as Viburnum opulus to relieve period pains[254]. Dill will also help to increase the flow of milk in nursing mothers and will then be taken by the baby in the milk to help prevent colic[254].
Other Uses
Essential;  Insecticide.

The seed contains up to 4% essential oils[244]. It is used in perfuming soaps[4], medicines and as a food flavouring[244]. Some compounds of dill (d-carvone is mentioned as one of them), when added to insecticides, have greatly increased the effectiveness of the insecticides[218].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Border, Container. An easily grown plant[4], it prefers a moderately rich loose soil and full sun[14, 27, 88]. Requires a well-drained soil[27] and shelter from the wind[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.3 to 7.8. Dill is a commonly cultivated herb, especially in warm temperate and tropical zones. It is grown mainly for its edible leaves and seeds, though it is also used medicinally. There are many named varieties[142, 183]. 'Bouquet' is an American cultivar that has a prolific production of seeds[238]. The sub-species A. graveolens sowa from India has a slightly different flavour to the type species[238]. The plant quickly runs to seed in dry weather[200]. It often self-sows when growing in a suitable position[37, 88]. A good companion for corn and cabbages, also in moderation for cucumbers, lettuce and onions, but it inhibits the growth of carrots[14, 18, 20]. Dill reduces a carrot crop if it is grown to maturity near them[201]. However, the young plant will help to deter carrot root fly[201]. The flowers are very attractive to bees[14, 18, 20]. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Edible, Fragrant foliage, Not North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow April to early summer in situ and only just cover[200, 238]. The seed germinates in 2 weeks if the soil is warm. A regular supply of leaves can be obtained if successional sowings are made from May to the end of June[89, 200]. Autumn sowings can succeed if the winters are mild[4]. Dill is very intolerant of root disturbance and should not be transplanted because it will then quickly run to seed.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
L.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
100200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7]Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[9]Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[14]Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs.
A good herbal.
[18]Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants.
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[20]Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Fairly good.
[21]Lust. J. The Herb Book.
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[27]Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden.
A reprint of a nineteenth century classic, giving details of vegetable varieties. Not really that informative though.
[37]Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant.
Excellent general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century. A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known species.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[88]RHS. The Garden. Volume 112.
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.
[89]Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean.
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
[100]Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide.
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[132]Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth.
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[142]Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man.
Readable but not very comprehensive.
[165]Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
An excellent small herbal.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[201]Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting.
A well produced and very readable book.
[218]Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[243] Medicinal Plants of Nepal
Terse details of the medicinal properties of Nepalese plants, including cultivated species and a few imported herbs.
[244]Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs
Deals with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.
[254]Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

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