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Allium cepa ascalonicum - Invalid name                
                 
Common Name Shallot
Family Alliaceae
Synonyms A. ascalonicum.
Known Hazards There have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of this plant. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible[76].
Habitats Not known in the wild.
Range Original habitat is obscure.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of bulb
Allium cepa ascalonicum is a BULB growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.

USDA hardiness zone : 4-8


Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Allium cepa ascalonicum Shallot


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allium_ascalonicum_Ypey29.jpg
Allium cepa ascalonicum Shallot
   
Habitats       
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Root.
Edible Uses:

Bulb - raw or cooked. A mild onion flavour, the bulbs can be up to 6cm in diameter. They can be added to salads etc, cooked as a vegetable or used as a flavouring in soups etc[1, 2, 16, 37]. Leaves - raw or cooked. A pleasant onion flavour, though they should not be harvested in quantity since this would reduce production of the bulbs[K]. Flowers - raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The flowers are somewhat dry and are less pleasant than many other species[K].
Composition                                         
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Root (Fresh weight)
  • 72 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 79.8%
  • Protein: 2.5g; Fat: 0.1g; Carbohydrate: 16.8g; Fibre: 0.7g; Ash: 0.8g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 37mg; Phosphorus: 60mg; Iron: 1.2mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 12mg; Potassium: 334mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.06mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.02mg; Niacin: 0.2mg; B6: 0mg; C: 8mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes:
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alterative;  Anthelmintic;  Antiinflammatory;  Antiseptic;  Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Carminative;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Febrifuge;  Hypoglycaemic;  
Hypotensive;  Lithontripic;  Nutritive;  Skin;  Stings;  Stomachic;  Tonic;  Vulnerary.

Although rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. The bulb is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontripic, stomachic and tonic[4, 7, 21]. When used regularly in the diet it offsets tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart attack[254]. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and tooth decay[254]. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores[254]. Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites, grazes or fungal skin complaints[7, 201]. When warmed the juice can be dropped into the ear to treat earache[254]. It also aids the formation of scar tissue on wounds, thus speeding up the healing process, and has been used as a cosmetic to remove freckles[7].
Other Uses
Cosmetic;  Dye;  Hair;  Polish;  Repellent;  Rust.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent and can also be rubbed onto the skin to repel insects[7]. The plant juice can be used as a rust preventative on metals and as a polish for copper and glass[7]. A yellow-brown dye is obtained from the skins of the bulbs[141, 168]. Onion juice rubbed into the skin is said to promote the growth of hair and to be a remedy for baldness[7]. It is also used as a cosmetic to get rid of freckles[7]. The growing plant is said to repel insects and moles[201]. A spray made by pouring enough boiling water to cover 1kg of chopped unpeeled onions is said to increase the resistance of other plants to diseases and parasites[201].
Cultivation details                                         
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil but tolerates most soils.[1, 200]. Does not grow well on heavy clays[200]. Prefers a pH in the range 6 to 7[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3. We are using the name A. cepa ascalonicum for this plant in order to differentiate it from the potato onion, A. cepa aggregatum, though it should really be included in A. cepa aggregatum[K]. This is a genuinely perennial form of A. cepa that is widely grown in temperate and tropical areas for its edible bulbs[200]. These are milder but smaller than the onion. There are several named forms[200]. The plant is easier to grow than onions, matures faster and keeps better[200], though yields are lower. Plants are very tolerant of high temperatures up to 30°c and bulbing only occurs at temperatures above 20°c[200]. Plants rarely produce viable seed in temperate areas, they are usually propagated by means of their bulbs, each one dividing up in the growing season to produce from 2 to more than 12 new bulbs[200]. Bulbs can become infected with virus, it is important to only plant clean stock[200]. Closely related to A. oschanini. O.Fedsch., a wild species found in C. Asia. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes[18, 20, 54]. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other[201]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233].
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Plant out bulbs in late winter or very early spring. Plant firmly to half the bulbs depth and protect from birds until the bulbs have rooted[200]. (Birds seem to have a fascination for pulling the bulbs out of the ground and then leaving them lying on the surface[K].) Traditionally, bulbs were planted on the shortest day and harvested on the longest. Smaller bulbs are less likely to bolt as a result of exposure to cold conditions[200].
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
Invalid name
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7]Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[16]Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook.
A good guide to growing vegetables in temperate areas, not entirely organic.
[18]Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants.
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[20]Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Fairly good.
[21]Lust. J. The Herb Book.
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[37]Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant.
Excellent general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century. A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known species.
[54]Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds.
Interesting reading.
[141]Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK.
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.
[168]Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants.
A very good and readable book on dyeing.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[201]Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting.
A well produced and very readable book.
[233]Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
[254]Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
raka Sat Jul 5 2008
haii.. im raka... collegian at Gadjah mada university, jogjakarta , Indonesia.. i'll ask you.... what is difference beween Allium cepa var ascalonicum and allium ascalonicum??.. and what is the meaning of ascalonicum.. thanks
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