Triticum aestivum - L.
Common Name Bread Wheat, Common wheat
Family Poaceae or Gramineae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Not known in the wild.
Range Of uncertain origin, perhaps the Middle East or Armenia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Moist Soil Full sun

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Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat, Common wheat
Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat, Common wheat
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Triticum aestivum is a ANNUAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

T. vulgare.

 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses:

Seed - cooked. The seed can be cooked as a whole grain but it is more usually ground into a powder and used as a flour for making bread, fermented foods, pasta, cakes, biscuits etc[1, 13, 34, 57, 183]. High in gluten, it is the most common flour used for making bread. The seed can also be sprouted and then added to salads or juiced to make a healthy drink[183]. A nutritional analysis is available[218].
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Seed (Fresh weight)
  • 340 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 13%
  • Protein: 11.7g; Fat: 2.2g; Carbohydrate: 72g; Fibre: 2g; Ash: 1.7g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 40mg; Phosphorus: 377mg; Iron: 3.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 400mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.55mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.11mg; Niacin: 4.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes: The figures given here are the median of a range given in the report.
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibilious;  Antihydrotic;  Antipruritic;  Antipyretic;  Antivinous;  Sedative;  Skin;  Stomachic.

The young stems are used in the treatment of biliousness and intoxication[218]. The ash is used to remove skin blemishes[218]. The fruit is antipyretic and sedative[218]. The light grain is antihydrotic[176]. It is used in the treatment of night sweats and spontaneous sweating[176]. The seed is said to contain sex hormones and has been used in China to promote female fertility[218]. The seed sprouts are antibilious, antivinous and constructive[218]. They are used in the treatment of malaise, sore throat, thirst, abdominal coldness and spasmic pain, constipation and cough[176]. The plant has anticancer properties[218].


Other Uses
Biomass;  Mulch;  Paper;  Size;  Starch;  Thatching.

The straw has many uses, as a biomass for fuel etc, for thatching, as a mulch in the garden etc[13, 100, 141, 171]. A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper[189]. The stems are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in lye or soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours in a ball mill. The fibres make a green-tan paper[189]. The starch from the seed is used for laundering, sizing textiles etc[46, 61].
Cultivation details
Management: Standard;  Staple Crop: Balanced carb;  Under Development.

An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a rich well-drained soil. Wheat is widely cultivated in most parts of the world, but less so in Asia, for its edible seed[13]. There are many named varieties[183]. This is a hexaploid species. Grows well with maize and with camomile in small quantities[18]. Dislikes dogwood, cherry, tulips, pine and poppies[18].
Seed - sow early spring or autumn in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination should take place within a few days[K].
Other Names
Ble, Frumento, Gahum, Gahun, Gahung, Gam, Gandham, Gandum, Gawn, Gehun, Gendum, Ghavum, Giun, Godamba, Godhi, Godhuma, Godumai, Godumbayarisi, Gom, Goodhumalu, Govum, Kanak, Kotanpam, Saatweizen, Tirigu, Trigo, Xaio mai, aabguwan, amylum tritici, blé, blé ordinaire, bread wheat, common wheat, dinkel, dinkel wheat, escanda, escaña, espelta, farro, froment, fructus tritici levis, frumento, frumento tenero, fu xiao mai, fuxiaomai, gam, gandum, gehun, godhuma, godumai, godumulu, hantha, hulled wheat, komugi, light wheat grain, mil, nishasta-e-gandum, pivla-potia, refined wheat-germ oil, saatweizen, spelt, spelt wheat, speltvete, spelz, trigo, trigo blando, trigo candeal, tritici aestivi oleum raffinatum, tritici aestivi oleum virginale, tritici amylum, tritici levis fructus, tritici levis semen, vete, virgin wheat-germ oil, weizen, wheat, wheat bran, wheat starch, wheat-germ oil, refined, wheat-germ oil, virgin, xiao mai, épeautre.
Found In
Africa, Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Asia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Balkans, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Britain, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Canada, Central Africa, Chad, China, Congo DR, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Africa, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, North Africa, North America, Norway, Pacific, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, PNG, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, SE Asia, Siberia, Somalia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, USA, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed
Related Plants


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A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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Subject : Triticum aestivum  

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