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Crataegus douglasii - Lindl.

Common Name Black Hawthorn
Family Rosaceae
USDA hardiness 4-8
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Open woods, banks of mountain streams and on rocky banks[43, 82].
Range Western N. America - British Columbia to Michigan, south to California.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Wet Soil Semi-shade Full sun
Crataegus douglasii Black Hawthorn


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Wsiegmund
Crataegus douglasii Black Hawthorn
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 2: 321.

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Summary


Physical Characteristics

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Crataegus douglasii is a deciduous Tree growing to 9 m (29ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Synonyms

C. rivularis. Nutt.

Habitats

Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3, 95, 99, 101]. A very pleasant flavour with a sweet and juicy succulent flesh[46, 82, K], it makes an excellent dessert fruit and can be eaten in quantity[K]. The fruit can also be used for making pies, preserves etc, and can be dried for later use[183]. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in small clusters[200]. The fruits I have eaten have been considerably larger than this[K]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antirheumatic;  Astringent;  Cardiotonic;  Hypotensive;  Poultice;  Stomachic.

An infusion of the shoots has been used to treat diarrhoea in children and sores in babies mouths[257]. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been applied to swellings[257]. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery[257]. An infusion of the sapwood, bark and roots has been used as a stomach medicine[257]. The thorns have been used as a treatment for arthritis[257].The point of the thorn was used to pierce an area affected by arthritic pain. The other end of the thorn was ignited and burned down to the point buried into the skin. This treatment was very painful but it was said that after a scab had formed and disappeared, the arthritic pain had also disappeared[257]. The thorns have been used as probes for boils and ulcers[257]. Although no other specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure[222]. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious[222]. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture[222].

Other Uses

Needles;  Wood.

The spines on the branches are used as needles for lancing boils, removing splinters etc[99]. Wood - close-grained, heavy, hard and tough. Used for tool handles etc[82, 99, 101].

Cultivation details

A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy[11, 200]. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[200]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[200]. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[200]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K]. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones[245]. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted[11].

Propagation

Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[164]. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K]. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring[80]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.

Other Names

If available other names are mentioned here

Found In

Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available

Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :

Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Crataegus acclivis 42
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Crataegus anomalaArnold hawthorn32
Crataegus apiifoliaParsley-Leaved Hawthorn22
Crataegus aprica 32
Crataegus armena 22
Crataegus arnoldiana 52
Crataegus atrosanguinea 32
Crataegus azarolusAzarole42
Crataegus baroussanaTejocote42
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Crataegus canadensisCanadian hawthorn22
Crataegus canbyiCockspur hawthorn, Dwarf Hawthorn, Cockspur Hawthorn22
Crataegus champlainensisQuebec hawthorn42
Crataegus chlorosarca 32
Crataegus chrysocarpaFireberry Hawthorn, Red haw, Piper's hawthorn,32
Crataegus coccinoidesKansas Hawthorn32
Crataegus columbianaColumbian Hawthorn32
Crataegus crus-galliCockspur Thorn, Cockspur hawthorn, Dwarf Hawthorn22
Crataegus cuneataSanzashi, Chinese hawthorn33
Crataegus dilatataBroadleaf hawthorn32
Crataegus dispessaMink hawthorn32
Crataegus durobrivensisCaughuawaga Hawthorn42
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Crataegus elongata 42
Crataegus festiva 52
Crataegus flabellataFanleaf hawthorn32
123

 

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Author

Lindl.

Botanical References

1143200

Links / References

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Readers comment

   Sun Aug 2 2009

Home Orchard Society Forums May be used as rootst

Jade Rubick   Sun Aug 2 2009

Home Orchard Society Forums May be used as dwarfing rootstock for pears

lowki   Thu Oct 1 2009

traditional - wood: digging sticks, handles; thorns: pierce ears, lance boils and probe skin ulers, fish hooks; leaves, inner bark, new shoots: burned together and mixed the ashes with grease to make a black face paint

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Subject : Crataegus douglasii  
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