Xanthostemon verdugonianus - Náves ex Fern.-Vill.
Common Name Mangkono
Family Myrtaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats The species is naturally rare. Restricted to the islands of Homonhou, Dinagat, and the eastern tip of Leyte.
Range Southeast Asia - Philippines.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Tender Moist Soil Full sun

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Xanthostemon verdugonianus or commonly known as Mangkono is a tree growing up to 50 m in height and 115 cm in bole diameter. It can be found in Southeast Asia particularly in the Philippines and is currently threatened by habitat loss. The bole is very irregular, fluted, and bent. Leaves are simple, relatively thick, alternate, and obovate. The inflorescence is red and located at terminal branches. The fruits are dehiscent with 2-3 lobes that split into 2-3 sections when ripe. The seeds are small and half-moon shaped. No plant part is of medicinal importance and edible. However, the plant is mainly valued for its excellent wood that is extremely hard, very heavy, and probably the most durable wood of the Philippines. It is of superior quality and is used for posts, piles, tool handles, wooden tool parts, bowling balls, dumbbells, paper weights, pulleys, rollers, etc.

Xanthostemon verdugonianus Mangkono

Xanthostemon verdugonianus Mangkono
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Xanthostemon verdugonianus is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.


Edible Uses
None known
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

None known


Other Uses
Other Uses The heartwood is a yellowish brown, turning to a dark bronze colour or nearly black with age; it is sharply demarcated from the 1 - 2cm layer of pale reddish heartwood. The grain is always crossed, frequently curly and twisted; the texture extremely fine and dense, so that the raw wood without oil or polish) can be burnished almost like metal[721[. The wood is exceedingly hard, very heavy and very durable[721 , 722 ]. It is probably the most durable wood of the Philippines; posts 40 years old have just 1cm of the sapwood decayed at the surface of ground, and salt-water pilings over 20 years old are attacked by teredo only to about the same extent[721 ]. The wood seasons without warping much, but large logs have often several radial heart cracks, and fresh sawn pieces check superficially, but not deeply. Very difficult to work. It is used for posts, piles, tool handles and other wooden tool parts, bowling balls, dumb-bells, paper weights and other desk novelties, pulleys, rollers, sheaves, bearings, saw-guide blocks, etc[721 ].
Cultivation details
Not known
Seed -
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Status: Vulnerable A1d
Related Plants


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Náves ex Fern.-Vill.
Botanical References
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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Subject : Xanthostemon verdugonianus  

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