Poncirus trifoliata - (L.)Raf.
Common Name Bitter Orange, Hardy orange, Trifoliat Orange, Japanese Hardy Orange
Family Rutaceae
USDA hardiness 6-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Hedgerows[109]. Woods in mountains and hills in Korea[279].
Range E. Asia - C. and S. China, Korea.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

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Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.

Poncirus trifoliata Bitter Orange, Hardy orange, Trifoliat Orange, Japanese Hardy Orange

Poncirus trifoliata Bitter Orange, Hardy orange, Trifoliat Orange, Japanese Hardy Orange
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of shrub
Poncirus trifoliata is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Aegle sepiaria. Citrus trifoliata. Limonia trifoliata.

Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Leaves.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Fruit - cooked. A bitter and acrid flavour, but it can be used to make a marmalade[3, 11, 105]. The fruit is also used to make a refreshing drink[61, 183]. The freshly picked fruit yields little juice but if stored for 2 weeks it will yield about 20% juice[183], which is rich in vitamin C. Yields of up to 14 kilos of fruit per plant have been achieved in America[160]. The fruit is 2 - 3cm wide[188], though most of this is the skin[K]. The fruit peel can be used as a flavouring[183]. Young leaves - cooked[183].
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiemetic;  Antispasmodic;  Carminative;  Deobstruent;  Digestive;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Laxative;  
Odontalgic;  Stimulant;  Stomachic;  Vasoconstrictor.

The thorns are used in the treatment of toothache[218]. The stem bark is used in the treatment of colds[218]. The fruits contain a number of medically active constituents including flavonoids, coumarins, monoterpenes and alkaloids[279]. The fruit, with the endocarp and seeds removed, is carminative, deobstruent and expectorant[176]. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation and abdominal distension, stuffy sensation in the chest, prolapse of the uterus, rectum and stomach[176]. It is milder in effect than the immature fruit and is better used for removing stagnancy of food and vital energy in the spleen and stomach[176]. The unripe fruit is antidiarrheic, antiemetic, antispasmodic, deobstruent, digestive, diuretic, laxative, stimulant, stomachic and vasoconstrictor[147, 176, 178, 218]. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation and abdominal distension, stuffy sensation in the chest, prolapse of the uterus, rectum and stomach, shock[176].


Other Uses
Hedge;  Hedge;  Rootstock.

Used as a rootstock for Citrus species (oranges, lemons etc)[105, 160]. It confers an extra 3°c resistance to the cold[160]. The plant is very thorny and makes an excellent impenetrable barrier or hedge[3, 11, 29], though this barrier is not very dense[K]. The plants are very tolerant of pruning[182], they are best clipped in early summer shortly after flowering[200, 245].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Border, Espalier, Foundation, Hedge, Screen, Standard, Winter interest. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in an ordinary garden soil[1], preferably well-drained[182], but prefers a fertile light sandy soil in a sunny position[11, 200]. A plant is growing and fruiting well in light woodland shade at Cambridge Botanical Gardens[K]. Plants dislike soil cultivation close to their roots and so should either be well mulched to prevent weed growth, or hand weeded[202]. Succeeds in poor acid soils[229]. Plants also succeed in chalk-laden soils[245]. Hardy to about -15°c[184]. Plants have survived -30°c of frost without injury according to one report[11]. The bitter orange hybridizes with Citrus species and could possibly be used in breeding programmes to produce hardier forms of oranges, lemons etc[61, 160]. It could also be of value in conferring disease resistance, tolerance of poorer soils and dwarfing characteristics. The flowers are produced on the previous years wood[200]. The whole plant, but especially the flowers[202], is strongly aromatic[182]. A very ornamental plant[1, 11], the fruits are freely formed in south-western Britain[11, 59]. A hedge at Wisley in a semi-shaded position fruits heavily in most years[K]. Another report says that warm autumns are required if the plant is to fruit freely. Fertile seed is produced after warm summers[182]. Plants are relatively short-lived, deteriorating after about 25 years[202]. Special Features: Not North American native, Naturalizing, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[200]. Cold stratify stored seed for 4 weeks and sow early spring in a greenhouse[113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June/July in a frame[1].
Other Names
Found In
North America,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants


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Readers comment
Louis Varricchio   Sun Mar 23 23:55:14 2003
Where can I purchase Poncirus? A friend gave me a small tree five years ago. It is in my Vermont yard. It appears ot have survived our -30 degree F winter! Now I'd like to plant others. Any commerical sources for this plant? Do you sell any of your specimens? Thank you,
Peter Knop   Sun Sep 21 18:00:55 2003
The Clean Earth Foundation, "Natural solutions to Unnatural Problems", located in the USA 3 miles from Dulles Airport, Washington,D.C., has been working with Poncirus Trifoliata for over 10 years and has both plants and seeds for sale as a means of raising funds for continued research. It also provides free tours of its arboretum. It is a 501(c)(3) so donations and membership are tax deductible. Members get their choices of free seeds or plants each year. For more info, [email protected] and after October 1st,2003 [email protected]
Rana H.   Tue Nov 4 18:27:16 2003
Thanks for this wonderful site. Do you have any marmalade recipes? We have two shrubs here in West Virginia, one growing zone north of Wahington DC.
Robert Gordon   Wed Mar 2 11:25:31 2005

Very nice and infotmative site. Thre is only one point I am in doubt of: As far as I know Poncirus does definitively not have fragrant flowers. It is often said it has, but I know a lot of different plants and none of them has. So if anybody has a Poncirus-shrub which produces fragrant flowers please let me know. Regards Robert

Jean C. Fisher, Co-President WSCHS   Tue May 18 15:13:42 2004
I was surprised to read that these trees are thought to be "short-lived" since we have a small row of trifoliate oranges here on Luther Burbank's Gold Ridge Experiment Farm (historical site)in Northern Calif. that were planted by Burbank, himself, sometime between 1887 and 1926!(And they look just fine!) :p
Rick H.   Sat Nov 15 2008
According to the USDA this shrub is not in Missouri. I live in Southwest Mo. and have one in my yard. It has been there since we moved in four years ago. Trunk dia. is approx. 2-3"
JMP   Fri Jul 24 2009
Regarded as an invasive species in Texas and some other states. Ecological Threat: Trifoliate orange invades woodlands, forest edges, fence rows and urban green spaces.

Texas Invasive Plants

   Apr 25 2017 12:00AM
Hello, How long until my tree bears fruit. It's at least 5--6 years old now
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Subject : Poncirus trifoliata  

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