Lolium perenne - L.
Common Name Perennial Ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, Darnel, Lyme Grass, Terrell Grass, English Ryegrass, Strand Wh
Family Poaceae or Gramineae
USDA hardiness 5-7
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Meadows and weedy places[74].
Range Europe to E. Asia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

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Main Bloom Time: Early fall, Late fall, Mid fall. Form: Prostrate.

Lolium perenne Perennial Ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, Darnel, Lyme Grass, Terrell Grass, English Ryegrass, Strand Wh
Lolium perenne Perennial Ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, Darnel, Lyme Grass, Terrell Grass, English Ryegrass, Strand Wh
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of flower
Lolium perenne is an evergreen Perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid, very alkaline and saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses:

Seed - cooked. Used as a cereal[177]. The seed has a nutritional value similar to oats (Avena sativa) and contain gluten[269]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails[177]. The seed is rather small and fiddly to use[K]. Yields of 1 tonne per hectare have been achieved, though around 500kg is a more common yield[269].
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent;  Cancer.

The plant has occasionally been used in the treatment of cancer, diarrhoea, haemorrhages and malaria[269].


Other Uses

The plant has the potential to be used as a source of biomass. Yields of up to 25 tonnes per hectare have been reported from Europe. In the absence of definitive yield information an average yield of 17.5 tonnes of dry matter per hectare per year and an energy content of 17.5 GJ per metric tonne are assumed[269].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Erosion control, Ground cover. Adapted to mild, humid temperate climates, this species grows best on rather heavy, rich, moist soils, but also does well on well-manured lighter soils with sufficient moisture[269]. It dislikes shade and requires a well-drained soil[200]. It prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, though it can tolerate a range from 4.5 - 8.2[269]. Plants are moderately drought resistant, they tolerate atmspheric pollution and salt in the soil, and can also succeed when planted on minespoil[269]. They prefer an annual precipitation in the range of 21 - 176cm[269]. Many cultivars have been developed by selection of individual plants, clones and families for specific purposes, such as for lawns, pastures and hay[269]. A fast growing plant, it combines particularly well with white clover (Trifolium repens)[269]. Special Features: Not North American native, Naturalizing.
Seed - sow in situ in the spring. It is also possible to sow the seed in situ in the autumn in most parts of Britain. This will give larger plants and heavier yields.
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants


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Readers comment
Birgitta m Mundy   Sat Feb 19 08:37:50 2005
Basic info and yet interesting in that the information seems to come from experiencing the facts given. I was looking for a photo. A picture tells a thousand words. A little more detail would be helpful. Your links are very interesting. Thanks
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Subject : Lolium perenne  

Plant Uses

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