Flemingia macrophylla - (Willd.) Merr.
                 
Common Name Enoki-mame
Family Fabaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Along watercourses in secondary forest, as well as under drier conditions such as in fields infested with Imperata cylindrica[303 ].
Range E. Asia - southern China, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Tender Moist Soil Wet Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Translate this page:

You can translate the content of this page by selecting a language in the select box.

Summary
Flemingia macrophylla or Longleaf Wurrus is a woody shrub that is one of the secondary sources of ?waras?, a coarse purple or brilliant orange-brown brown Arab dye. It is about 1-4 m tall, deep-rooting, and tussock-forming. The stems have ridges and are softly hairy. The leaves are oval or sword-shaped. The flowers are in dense clusters. The fruits are oblong pods. It is commonly found along watercourses in secondary forest in East Asia. It has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria that form root nodules and fix atmospheric nitrogen. The leaves are febrifuge and used for treating postpartum fever, paralysis, and joint pains. Leaf decoction is used to bathe sores and swellings. The entire plant can be used against stomach pain. The roots can be used for ulcers and swellings. The plant is also planted as cover and shade crop and to control soil erosion.

Flemingia macrophylla Enoki-mame


www.botanicimage.com
Flemingia macrophylla Enoki-mame
www.botanicimage.com
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of shrub
Flemingia macrophylla is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
Crotalaria macrophylla Willd. Flemingia congesta Roxb. ex W.T.Aiton Flemingia latifolia Benth. Mogha

Habitats
Edible Uses
Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable, Seeds - flavouring. The pods are eaten.
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



The leaves are febrifuge and are used for treating postpartum fever and to treat paralysis and pain in the joints[303 ]. A decoction of the leaves is used to bathe sores and swellings[303 ].

 

Other Uses
Agroforestry Uses: The plant is grown on terraces to control soil erosion[303 ]. Used as a cover and shade crop in young plantations of cocoa, sisal, coffee, banana, plantain, oil palm and rubber; it also acts as a good windbreak[303 , 332 ]. The plant provides mulch for associated food crops. Owing to the slow decomposition of the leaves, the mulch has long-term effects in weed control, moisture conservation and reduction of soil temperature[303 ]. Flemingia mulch forms a relatively solid layer that effectively prevents germination of weed seeds or stunts their early development for 100 days[303 ]. It is grown in hedges; promising when used as a live fence. In Malaysia, it is a useful bush to plant with creeping legumes, as it provides support for them to climb on and is deep rooting[303 ]. It is grown in alley-cropping systems, used in pineapple plantations to control nematode infestation[303 ]. Grown as an understorey for the Honduras pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis). Useful as a cover crop in perennial plantations[303 ]. Other Uses: One of the sources of the Arab dye called ?waras? or ?warrus?. It is a coarse purple or orange-brown powder consisting of the glandular hairs rubbed from dry Flemingia fruit; capable of dying silk but not wool or cotton, the active component is called flemingin[303 ]. The powder is used in India, the Arab world and in Africa (e.g. in Uganda, Zimbabwe and Malawi), mainly for dyeing silk and cotton a golden-yellow, but also for other purposes such as dyeing bamboo for baskets and making coloured ink[299 ]. It is also used as a cosmetic by placing a small portion of the powder in the palm of the hand and moistening it with water; the hands are then rubbed together, producing a lather of a bright gamboge colour, which is applied as required[299 ]. To prepare the dye, the powder is dissolved in the dye bath with an equal weight of sodium carbonate. When the temperature of the bath reaches 40?c the yarns or textiles to be dyed are put into the bath and the whole is slowly heated to boiling point. To make the colour brighter, the fibre can be washed in slightly acidic water, e.g. made with lemon juice. Beautiful deep yellow or orange colours can be obtained, fast to light and acids, less so to alkaline substances. Those colours were used very frequently in combination with indigo blue in the renowned ikat textiles from Yemen[299 ]. Fuel wood is a valuable by-product[303 ].
Cultivation details
Agroforestry Services: Alley crop;  Agroforestry Services: Contour hedgerow;  Agroforestry Services: Nitrogen;  Fodder: Bank;  Management: Coppice;  Minor Global Crop.

A plant of the moist to wet tropics, where it is found at elevations from sea level up to 2,000 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 - 28?c, but can tolerate 12 - 36?c[418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,300 - 2,200mm, but tolerates 1,100 - 3,500mm[418 ]. Prefers a sunny position, but is tolerant of light shade[303 , 418 ]. Capable of surviving on poorly drained soils with waterlogging[303 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 7, tolerating 4 - 8[418 ]. Established plants can tolerate fairly long dry spells[303 ]. Tolerant of up to 4 months drought a year[418 ]. Plants are moderately able to survive fires[303 ]. Good weed control is required during the first 6 months of sowing since the plants are relatively slow to establish; once established, they require little attention[303 ]. A two year old stand of plants with a spacing of 50cm x 400cm can produce about 6.8 tonnes of dry woody stems per hectare for fuel[303 ]. Plants can be cut more frequently than every 3 months, but preferably not at intervals of less than 40 days. With an excellent coppicing capacity, the shrub will survive under this cutting regime for many years[303 ]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[755 ].
Propagation
Seed - it has a hard seedcoat and may benefit from scarification before sowing in order to speed up and improve germination. This can usually be done by pouring a small amount of nearly boiling water on the seeds (being careful not to cook them!) and then soaking them for 12 - 24 hours in warm water. By this time they should have imbibed moisture and swollen - if they have not, then carefully make a nick in the seedcoat (being careful not to damage the embryo) and soak for a further 12 hours before sowing. When planting in a new area, seed should be sown with a suitable strain of Bradyrhizobium such as CIAT 4203 or 4215.
Other Names
Bara-salpan, Batwasi, Bhalia, Birbut, Bonokandulo, Dowdowla, False saffron, Kamatteri, Korkattachedi, Lavglo, Ote garsul, Samnaskhat, bhatamase lahara, dao wa, ghunchuni , mi teptep, myuchuk, nipitmuk, ramothe, varrus, varus, yo wang.
Found In
Africa, Asia, Burma, China, East Africa, Ghana, India, Indochina, Laos, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific, Papua New Guinea, PNG, SE Asia, Tanzania, Vietnam, West Africa,
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed
Related Plants

 

Print Friendly and PDF
Expert comment
 
Author
(Willd.) Merr.
Botanical References
1
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
Readers comment
 
QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.
2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.
3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.
Add a comment

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at [email protected]. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately.

Subject : Flemingia macrophylla  

Plant Uses

Edible Uses
Medicinal Uses
Other Plant uses
Woodland Gardening
Why Perennial Plants?
Top Edible Plants
Top Medicinal Plants
Garden Design
Habitats
Translations

Twiter      Facebook

Content

Content Help
Bookshop
Support Us
Blog
Links
Old Database Search
Suppliers
Contact
About Us
News
Sign In

Stay informed about PFAFs progress,
challenges and hopes by signing up for
our free email ePost. You will receive
a range of benefits including:
* Important announcements and news
* Exclusive content not on the website
* Updates on new information &
functionality of the website & database

We will not sell or share your email address.
You can unsubscribe at anytime.