Buxus sempervirens - L.
Common Name Box, Common box, American Boxwood
Family Buxaceae
USDA hardiness 6-8
Known Hazards All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the leaves and bark[200].
Habitats Beechwood and scrub, usually on chalk and limestone[17].
Range Europe, including Britain, south and east from France and Germany to N. Africa and Albania.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

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Bloom Color: Green. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.

Buxus sempervirens Box, Common box, American Boxwood

Buxus sempervirens Box, Common box, American Boxwood
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of shrub
Buxus sempervirens is an evergreen Shrub growing to 5 m (16ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.


Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts:
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The leaves have been used in France as a substitute for hops (Humulus lupulus) in making beer[7]. They cannot be very wholesome, and would probably prove to be injurious[2].
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alterative;  Antiperiodic;  Antirheumatic;  Cathartic;  Cholagogue;  Diaphoretic;  Febrifuge;  Homeopathy;  
Narcotic;  Odontalgic;  Oxytoxic;  Sedative;  Tonic;  Vermifuge.

Although it has been used medicinally in the past as a sedative and to treat syphilis, box is very rarely used in modern herbalism[268]. The leaves and the bark are alterative, antirheumatic, cathartic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, febrifuge, oxytocic and vermifuge[4, 7, 9, 21, 178]. The leaves have been used as a quinine substitute in the treatment of malaria[7]. The leaves are harvested in the spring, before the plant comes into flower, and they are dried for later use[238]. The bark can be harvested at any time of the year and is dried for use in decoctions[238]. Use this remedy with caution and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The plant has not been fully tested for its toxic side effects[7, 21]. The wood is diaphoretic, in full dose it is narcotic and sedative, in overdose it is convulsant and emetico-cathartic[4]. A tincture of the wood has been used as a bitter tonic and antiperiodic, it has also had a reputation for curing leprosy[4]. A volatile oil distilled from the wood has been prescribed in cases of epilepsy[4]. An essential oil obtained from the plant is used in dentistry[7]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant[7]. It is extensively used in the treatment of rheumatism[7].


Other Uses
Dye;  Hedge;  Hedge;  Wood.

Box makes an excellent hedge from 45cm to 4.5 metres tall according to the variety grown[11, 29]. It is quite slow growing but very tolerant of cutting and is often used in topiary, where the hedge is trimmed into different forms for ornamental effect[182]. The leaves and sawdust, boiled in lye, have been used to dye hair an auburn colour[4]. Wood - hard, close grained, heavy. Although the wood is rather small, it is highly valued on account of its hardness - it is twice as hard as oak (Quercus species)[4, 268]. It is used for engraving, printing blocks, bowls, combs etc[4, 7, 11, 46, 100, 115, 178]. The root especially is much liked by turners and cabinet makers[7].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Container, Foundation, Screen, Woodland garden. Succeeds in almost any soil that is well-drained[11, 200], preferring light shade and chalky soils[9, 11, 28, 31]. Succeeds in dry shade[188]. Tolerates a pH range from 5.5 to 7.4[200]. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -23°c, though it prefers milder winters[238]. A very polymorphic species, it is a very ornamental but slow growing plant[11] and there are many named varieties developed for their ornamental value[182]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200]. A good bee plant[108]. Plants are very tolerant of being trimmed, they can be cut right back to the base if required and will usually resprout freely[11, 29]. The foliage is pungently scented, especially when wet[245]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Seed - stratification is not necessary but can lead to more regular germination[113]. The seed is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[138]. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. It usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c but stored seed can take longer[138]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of short side shoots with a heel, September in a frame[200]. High percentage[78]. Rather slow to root[K]. Nodal cuttings in spring in a frame. Fairly easy[200].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Buxus balearica 00
Buxus harlandiiJapanese Box00
Buxus microphyllaLittleleaf boxwood , Littleleaf Boxwood00
Buxus wallichiana 01


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Botanical References
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Readers comment
ANdrew Saulnier   Thu Nov 18 12:57:20 2004
I like the primative overall outlook of the Common Boxwood
David Beaulieu   Tue Jan 24 2006

Boxwood Shrubs Uses for boxwood shrubs and how to grow them.

   Fri Jan 19 2007
Does anyone know why the Buxus sempervirens smell like cat pee?
Ken Fern, Plants for a Future   Sun Jan 21 2007
Tastes seem to vary widely regarding the smell of this plant. Whilst the comment above compares it to the scent of cat wee, other people have had very positive reactions to it calling it highly refreshing and stimulating. The smell is much stronger after rain, so if anyone out there wants to give it a sniff and then pass on your comments to me, we can collate the results to see how many people have positive or negative reactions.
Ruud   Sat Mar 3 2007
We live in Spain in the Pyrenees and have plenty of buxus around. Now, buxus is also entering the fields/pastures and are hard to kill. Who knows an effective way to get rid of buxus?
   Sat Jul 26 2008
We live in Ohio and have boxwood in front of our house it to smells like cat pee.
Philip   Wed Sep 17 2008
My BOX has recently become dead in several places. Some 15 years old and suddenly dead patches appearing. Very worrying. HELP Please. Philip
kiumars   Thu Jan 29 2009
some technological properties of boxwood
Ktroy   Tue Mar 31 2009
This plant smells to me like fresh rejuvenating oxygen after a rain. I am very attracted to this plant.. I just planted one near my window.
edward   Tue Jan 19 2010
I can't help but thinking that the people who have smelly box might have some smelly cats visiting their garden! Our box hedge certainly smells nothing like a cat's loo and I'm not surprised - our dogs won't let a cat near our garden. It is of course possible that we aren't all talking about the same Buxus species. Philip's comment above is old but it's a common problem: box blight is a losing battle in my experience. I know several people who have managed it for years with constant cleaning, pruning, spraying etc and there is plenty of info out there, but I would personally give up and move on. If you have good soil drainage, you might consider lavender as a similar sized shrub. As for killing box, I'm surprised that it's a problem! Just dig down a bit, saw through some roots and rip it up. Hoe over any seedlings that appear - if you have a wild population sending seeds into your garden each year, this will just be one of those chores.

Ashridge Trees - Boxwood Plants More about Box

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Subject : Buxus sempervirens  

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