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Edible Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Britain

A more readable is also available. The data here is TAB-deliminated to allow it to be imported into a database.

type	Botanical Name	Common Name	Edible Parts	Notes

E.T.	Acacia longifolia	Wattle	Seed	Very mild areas only, sunny position, light soil
D.T.	Acer glabrum	Rock Maple	Young shoots, inner bark	Sunny position, moist well drained soil
D.T.	Acer saccharum	Sugar Maple	Sap  - a sugar substitute	Sunny position, deep moist soil
	Other species that yield maple syrup include: A. argutum, A. carpinifolium, A. distylum, A. grandidentatum, A. interius, A. macrophyllum, A. mono, A. nigrum, A. negundo, 
	A. palmatum, A. platanoides, A. rubrum, A. pseudo-platanus, A. saccharinum and A. tataricum
D.T.	Acer tataricum		Seed, sap	Sunny position, moist well-drained soil
D.T.	Acer truncatum		Seed	Sunny position, moist well-drained soil
D.CL.	Actinidia arguta		Fruit - very rich in Vitamin C, sap	Very hardy. Good loamy soil. Dioecious
D.CL.	Actinidia chinensis	Chinese Gooseberry, Kiwi Fruit	Fruit - stores up to 4 months	Good loamy soil. Dislikes lime. Sunny position. Dioecious
	Other species with edible fruit include A. callosa, A. giraldii, A. kolomikta, A. melanandra, A. polygama, A. purpurea and A. rubricaulis.  Most are best in southern England though A. arguta comes from Siberia and would be very worthwhile trying further north
D.T.	Aesculus flava	Sweet Buckeye	Seed - as sweet as a chestnut	Good deep soil.  Best in south east England
	Other species include Ae. californica, Ae. hippocastanum, Ae. parviflora and Ae. indica.  However, they all contain saponins and need to be leached before being eaten so are best avoided.  Even Ae. flava should be viewed with some suspicion
D.CL.	Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata )	Akebia	Fruit - not freely produced in Britain	Partial shade.  Probably self-sterile so more than one plant should be grown
D.T.	Albizzia julibrisin		Leaves	Mild areas only
D.T.	Alnus rubra	Red Alder	Sap, buds, inner bark	Succeeds in heavy damp soils
D.SH.	Amelanchier canadensis	Juneberry	Fruit - sweet	Most soils, sunny position
	The fruits of all members of this genus are edible, though sometimes dry and tasteless.  The following are said to have desirable fruits.  A. alnifolia, A. humilis, A. laevis, A. lamarckii, A. stolonifera
D.CL.	Ampelopsis brevipedunculata		Leaves and young stems	Sunny position
D.SH.	Aralia chinensis	Angelica Tree	Young shoots	Shady position, good deep loam
D.T.	Aralia spinosa	Hercule's Club	Young leaves	Good deep loam
E.T.	Araularia araucana	Monkey Puzzle	Seed	Deep soil.  Very wind resistant.  Dioecious
E.T.	Arbutus unedo	Strawberry Tree	Fruit	Most soils.  Wind resistant	Other species with edible fruits include A. andrachne, A. menziesii
E.SH.	Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi	Bearberry	Fruit - carbohydrate source	Lime-free soils
	Other species with edible fruits include A. columbiana, A. glauca, A. manzanita, A. nevadensis, A. patula and A. tomentosa
D.SH.	Arctous alpinus		Fruit	Lime-free soil.  Cool, damp position
E.SH.	Aristotelia chilensis	Macqui	Fruit - tastes like Bilberries	South and south-west Britain only
D.T.	Aristotelia serrata		Fruit	Moist, mild areas only
D.SH.	Aronia arbutifolia	Red Currant	Fruit	Most soils
E.SH.	Artemesia tridentata	Sage Brush	Leaves, seed	Sunny positon.  Well-drained, lime-free, not rich soil
D.SH.	Asimina triloba		Fruit	Sunny position, rich loamy soil
E.SH.	Atriplex halimus	Sea Orch	Leaves, seed	Sunny position, light soil, even pure sand.  Wind resistant
	Other species include A. canescens and A. confertifolia
E.SH.	Azara microphylla		Fruit	Warm, sheltered position.  Most soil
E. & D.SH.	Berberis spp	Barberries	Fruit	Most soils
	Species mentioned for their fruit include B. aggregata, B. angulosa, B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. buxifolia, B. canadensis, B. darwinii, B. empetrifolium, B. lycium, B sibirica and B. vulgaris

D.CL.	Berchemia lineata		Fruit	Good moist loam
D.CL.	Berchemia racemosa		Leaves, cooked	Good moist loam
D.T.	Betula pendula	Silver Birch	Leaves, inner bark, sap	Well-drained soil.  Tolerates bad soils
	Other Betula spp include B. alleghaniensis, B. lenta, B. nigra, B. papyrifera, B. pubescens and B. utilis
D.SH.	Broussonettia kazinoki		Fruit, flowers, leaves	Most soils
D.T.	Brousonetia papyrifera	Paper Mulberry	Fruit, leaves	Most soils

D.SH.	Callicarpa americana		Fruit	Sunny position.  Milder areas only
D.SH.	Callicarpa mollis		Fruit	Sunny position.  Milder areas only
E.SH. 	Calligonum aphyllum		Root, young shoots	Sunny position.  Dryish sandy loam
D.SH.	Calycanthus floridus	Carolina Allspice	Bark,a Cinnamon substitute	Sunny position.  Deep moist light loamy soil
D.SH.	Calycanthus occidentalis	Californian Allspice	Bark,a Cinnamon and Allspice substitute	Sunny position.  Most soils
E.SH.	Camellia oliefera	Camellia	Oil from seed	Lime free soil.  Best in milder areas
	Other species yielding oil include C. japonica, C. sasanqua
D.SH.	Caragana arborescens	Siberian Pea Shrub	Seed, pods	Full sun.  Light sandy, not rich soil
D.SH.	Caragana pygmaea		Root	Full sun.  Light sandy, not rich soil
D.SH.	Caragana sinica		Flowers	Full sun.  Light sandy, not rich soil
D.T.	Carpinus caroliniana	American Hornbeam	Seed	Most soils
D.T.	Carya glabra	Pignut Hickory	Seed, sap	Deep loamy soil.  Seed can be sweet or astringent
D.T.	Carya laciniosa	Shellbark Hickory	Seed, sap	Deep loamy soil.  Sunny position
D.T.	Carya ovata	Shagbark Hickory	Seed, sap	Deep loamy soil.  Sunny position
	Other species include C. buckleyi, C. carolinae-septentrivnalis, C. cathayensis, C. illinoensis, C. megacarpa, C. myristicaeformis, C. ovalis, C.pallida and C. tomentosa
D.T.	Castanea sativa	Sweet Chestnut	Seed	Sunny position.  Most soils but dislikes lime
	Other species include C. alnifolia, C. crenata, C. dentata, C. henryi, C. mollissima, C. pumila, C. ozarkensis and C. seguinii
E.T.	Castanopsis cuspidata		Seed	Best in mild areas
E.T.	Castanopsis delavayi		Seed	Good deep loam
D.T.	Catalpa ovata		Flowers, young pods	Sunny, sheltered position
E.SH.	Ceanothus cuneatus	Buck Bush	Seed	Sunny position.  Light soil low in lime
	Other species include C. fendleri and C. integerrimus
D.CL.	Celastrus flagellaris		Young leaves	Deep loamy soil
D.CL.	Celastrus orbiculatus	Young leaves	Dioecious
D.CL.	Celastrus scandens	Climbing Bittersweet	Bark and young shoots	Deep loamy soil.  Dislikes lime.  Dioecious
D.T.	Celtis occidentalis	Sugarberry	Fruit, seed	Most soils
	Other species include C. australis, C. bungeana, C. caucasia, C. jessoensis, C. Koraiensis, C. laevigata, C. reticulata, C. tournefortii, C. sinensis
E.SH.	Cephalotaxus fortunei	Chinese Plum Yew	Fruit	Most soils.  Tolerates heavy shade.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Cephalotaxus harringtonia	Japanese Plum Yew	Fruit, seed	Most soils.  Tolerates heavy shade.  Dioecious
E.T.	Ceratonia siliqua	Carob	Seed, seed pod	Very mild areas only.  Well-drained soil
D.T.	Cercis canadensis	Redbud	Flowers	Very sunny position.  Deep sandy loam
D.T.	Cercis siliquastrum	Judas Tree	Flowers, seed pods	Very sunny position.  Does best on poorish light soil
D.SH.	Chaenomeles cathayensis	Chinese Quince	Fruit	Sunny position.  Most soils if well-drained
	Other species include C. japonica, C. speciosa
E.SH.	Chamaerops humilis	Dwarf Fan Palm	Young shoots	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil.  Mild areas only
D.SH.	Chionanthus virginicus	Fringe Tree	Fruit	Sunny position
E.T.	Chrysolepsis chrysantha		Seed - sweet tasting	Lime-free soil.  Sheltered, semi-shady position.  Fruits well in Edinburgh
D.SH.	Clethra barbinervis		Leaves	Peaty, well-drained, lime-free soil.  Mild areas
D.SH.	Comptonia peregrina asplenifolia	Sweet Fern	Young fruits	Peaty, lime-free soil
E.SH.	Coprosma species		Fruit	Mild areas only.  All the species have edible fruits
E.T.	Cordyline australis	Cabbage Tree	Root, shoots	Mild areas.  Very wind resistant
E.T.	Cordyline indivisa		Fruit	Mild areas.  Very wind resistant
E.SH.	Corema conradii	Poverty Grass	Fruit	Lime-free soil
D.SH.	Coriaria sinica		Fruit	Seed is poisonous. Best in milder areas
	Other species include C. sarmentosa and C. terminalis
D.T.	Cornus kousa chinense		Fruit, young leaves	Most soils
D.T.	Cornus mas	Cornelian Cherry	Fruit	Most soils.  Sunny position
D.SH.	Cornus sanguinea	Dogwood	Oil from seed	Most soils
	Other species with edible fruits include C. amomum, C. capitata, C. controversa, C. macrophylla, C. occidentalis, C. officinalis and C. stolonifera
D.SH.	Corylus avellana	Hazel Nut	Seed, oil from seed	Most soils and positions
D.SH.	Corylus maxima	Filberts	Seed	Most soils and positions
	Other species include C. americana, C. chinensis, C. colurna, C. cornuta, C. heterophylla, C. jacquemontii, C. pontica, C. sieboldiana mandschurica and C. tibetica
E.T.	Corynocarpus laevigata	New Zealand Laurel	Fruit, seed	Mild areas only.  Seed must be leeched to remove toxins
D.SH.	Cotoneaster racemiflorus		Manna	Most soils
D.T.	Crataegus azarolus	Azarole	Fruit	Sunny position.  Most soils
D.T.	Crataegus douglasii		Fruit	Sunny position.  Most soils
D.T.	Crataegus monogyna	Hawthorn	Leaves, fruit	Most soils
	All species of Crataegus have edible fruits though they are often not very desirable.  Some of the nicer ones include C. aprica, C. atrosangvinea, C. hupehensis, C. laciniata, 
	C. pensylvanica, C. schraderana, C. succulenta, C. tanacetifolia and C. tomentosa
D.T.	Cudrania tricuspidata	Silk-Worm Thorn	Fruit	Very hardy.  Most soils.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Cyathodes colensoi		Fruit	Peaty soil
E.SH.	Cyathodes fraseri		Fruit	Mild areas only
D.T.	Cydonia oblonga	Quince	Fruit	Sunny positon.  Most soils

E.T.	Dacrycarpus dacrydioides	White Pine	Fruit	Very mild areas only
E.T.	Dacrydium cupressinum	Rimu	Fruit	Very mild areas only
D.SH.	Decaisnea fargesii		Fruit	Rich moist loamy soil
D.SH.	Deutzia scabra		Young leaves	Moist soils
D.T.	Diospyros kaki	Persimmon	Fruit All these species are dioecious but female trees can produce seedless fruits without being pollinated. D. daki is best grown on a south-facing wall.
D.T.	Diospyros lotus	Date Plum	Fruit 
D.T.	Diospyros virginiana	American Persimmon	Fruit 
E.SH.	Drimys lanceolata	Mountain Pepper	Fruit is a pepper substitute	Best in mild areas
E.SH.	Drimys winteri	Winter's Bark	Bark is a condiment	Best in mild areas.  Moist soil

D.T.	Ehretia dicksonii		Fruit	Succeeds on chalk
	Other species include E. acuminata and E. elliptica
D.SH.	Elaeagnus multiflora		Fruit	Sunny position.  Light soil.  Very drought and wind resistant
	Other species include E. angustifolia, E. commutata, E. glabra, E. macrophylla, E. montana, E. pungens and E. umbellata
D.SH.	Eleutherococcus sieboldianus		Leaves	Sheltered position, warm loamy soil
	Other species include E. divaricatus, E. japonicus, E. senticosus, E. sessiliflorus and E. trifoliatus
E.SH.	Empetrum nigrum	Crowberry	Fruit	Peaty soil.  Dioecious
	Other species include E. hermaphroditum, E. rubrum
E.SH.	Ephedra distachya	Sea Grape	Fruit	Sunny position. Well-drained soil.
E.SH.	Ephedra gerardiana		Fruit
E.SH.	Ephedra nevadensis		Seed
E.SH.	Epigaea asiatica		Fruit	Lime-free humus rich soil.  Shade
E.SH.	Epigaea repens		Fruit	Lime-free humus rich soil.  Shade
E.T.	Eriobotrya japonica	Loquat	Fruit - not often borne	Well drained soil
D.T.	Euodia daniellii		Oil from fruit	Most soils
D.T.	Euodia fraxinifolia		Fruit, oil from seed	Most soils.  Hardy(?)

D.T.	Fagus sylvatica	Beech	Leaves, seed, oil from seed	Most soils except heavy wet soils
	Other species include F. crenata, F. grandifolia, F. japonica, F. longipetiolata, F. lucida and F. orientalis
E.T.	Feijoa sellowiana	Feijoa	Fruit, flowers	Most soils.  Sunny position.  Mild areas
D.T.	Ficus carica	Fig	Fruit	Well-drained soil with lime
D.T.	Firmiana simplex		Seed	Sandy loam.  Mild areas only
D.SH.	Forestiera neo-mexicana		Fruit - an olive substitute	Most soils.  Very sunny position
D.SH.	Forsythia suspensa		Young leaves	Most soils
D.T.	Fraxinus ornus	Manna Ash	Sap	Moist soil
	Other species include F. floribunda and F. rotundifolia
D.SH.	Fuchsia spp	Fuchsia	Fruit	Well-drained humus-rich soil
	All species of fuchsia have edible fruits though often of poor quality.  Two species reasonably hardy in Britain are F. excorticata and F. magallenica.  It is always worthwhile sampling the fruits of the many hardy garden hybrids

E.SH.	Gaultheria procumbens	Checkerberry	Fruit, leaves	Lime-free soil, some shade
E.SH.	Gaultheria shallon	Shallon	Fruit	Lime-free soil, some shade
	Other species include G. adenothrix, G. antipoda, G. fragrantissima, G. hispida, G. hispidula, G. humifusa, G. miqueliana, G. ovatifolia and G. trichophylla
D.SH.	Gaylussacia baccata	Black Huckleberry	Fruit	Well-drained, humus-rich, lime-free soil
	Other species include G. brachycera, G. dumosa, G. frondosa and G. ursina
E.T.	Gevuina avellana	Chilean Hazel	Seed	Mild areas only.  Woodland conditions
E.T.	Ginkgo biloba	Maidenhair Tree	Seed	Well-drained soil.  Sheltered position
D.T.	Gleditschia triacanthos	Honey Locust	Seed pod - not often produced	Sunny position, good loamy soil
D.SH.	Grewia optiva		Fruit	Not very hardy
D.T.	Gymnocladus dioica	Kentucky Coffee Tree	Seed pods - not often borne	Rich, deep soil

E.SH.	Halimione portulacoides	Sea Purslane	Leaves	
D.SH.	Hamamelis virginiana	Witch Hazel	Seed	Most soils if moist
D.SH.	Helwingia japonica		Leaves, young shoots, flowers	Most soils.  Dioecious
D.SH.	Hibiscus syriacus		Leaves, flowers, oil from seed	Most soils except badly drained ones.  Sunny position
D.SH.	Hippophae rhamnoides	Sea Buckthorn	Fruit	Most soils, sunny position.  Dioecious
D.T.	Hippophae salicifolia		Fruit	Most soils, sunny position.  Dioecious
E.CL.	Holboellia coriacea		Fruit	Most soils.  Prefers a shady wall or growing into a tree
	Other species include H. grandiflora and H. latifolia
D.SH.	Holodiscus discolor		Fruit	Thin woodland.  Most soils
D.SH.	Holodiscus dumosus		Fruit	Most soils
D.T.	Hovenia dulcis	Japanese Raisin Tree	Fruit	Sandy loam
D.SH.	Hydrangea macrophylla		Leaves - sweet	Well drained, but not dry, loamy soil
	Other species include H. hirta and H. serrata
E.SH.	Hyssopus officinalis	Hyssop	Leaves	Sunny position.  Light dry soil containing lime

D.T.	Idesia polycarpa		Fruit	Most soils.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Illicium anisatum	Star Anise	Fruit - a flavouring	Light moist peaty loam.
E.SH.	Illicium floridanum	Aniseed Tree	Used as a flavouring	Sheltered position.  Mild areas
D.SH.	Indigofera decora		Seed	Sunny position.  Most well-drained soils.  Mild areas

E.T.	Jubaea chilensis	Sugar Palm	Sap, seed, oil from seed	Very mild areas only
D.T.	Juglans ailantifolia	Japanese Walnut	Seed	Deep loamy soil.  The hardiest walnut
D.T.	Juglans cinerea	Butternut	Seed, sap, oil from seed	Deep loamy soil.  Very cold resistant
D.T.	Juglans regia	Walnut	Seed, sap, oil from seed	Most soils if deep and well drained
	Other species include J. cathayensis, J. hindsii, J. mandschurica, J. microcarpa and J. nigra
E.SH.	Juniperus communis	Juniper	Fruit - a flavouring	Most soils.  Likes lime
E.T.	Juniperus deppeana	Aligator Juniper	Fruit - sweet	Very sunny, hot and dry position.  Likes lime
E.T.	Juniperus drupacea	Syrian Juniper	Fruit - sweet	Well-drained soils.  Likes lime
	Other species include J. californica, J. conferta, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J. osteosperma, J. recurva, J. rigida, J. scopulorum, J. tetragona and J. virginiana

D.SH.	Kerria japonica		Young leaves	Most soils
D.T.	Koelreuteria paniculata		Leaves, berries	Most soils.  Sunny position

E.CL.	Lapageria rosea	Chilean Bellflower	Fruit	Mild areas.  Shady position.  Lime-free soil
E.CL.	Lardizabala biternata		Fruit	Mild areas.  Well-drained sandy loam.  Dioecious
E.T.	Laurelia serrata	Peruvian Nutmeg	Seed - a spice	Mild areas only.  Sheltered position. Dioecious
E.T.	Laurus nobilis	Bay Tree	Leaves - a flavouring	Most soils.  Sun or light shade.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Lavandula angustifolia	Lavander	Leaves - very aromatic	Sunny position.  Most soils if well-drained
D.SH.	Lespedeza bicolor		Seed, young stems and leaves	Light soil.  Sunny position
D.SH.	Lespedeza cyrtobotrya		Young shoots	Light soil.  Sunny position
D.SH.	Lindera benzoin	Spice Bush	Bark - allspice substitute	Lime-free soil.  Dioecious
D.T.	Liriodendron tulipifera	Tulip Tree	Bark - a flavouring	Rich, deep soil.  Sheltered position
E.T.	Lithocarpus densiflorus		Seed - oily	Hardy at Kew
E.T.	Lithocarpus edulis		Seed	Mild areas
D.SH.	Lonicera coerulea edulis		Fruit	Sunny position
	Other species include L. angustifolia, L. chrysantha, L. gracilipes, L. involucrata and L. villosa
D.SH.	Lycium barbarum	Box Thorn	Fruit, young shoots	Shoots should be used with caution.  Sunny position.  Well-drained soild.  Very wind resistant
D.SH.	Lycium pallidum		Fruit	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil

D.SH.	Maackia amurensis		Young leaves	Sunny position.  Most soils
E.SH.	Mahonia aquifolia	Oregon Grape	Fruit	Most soils and situations.  Tolerates heavy shade
	Other species include M. haematocarpa, M. nepaulensis, M. nervosa, M. nevinii, M. pinnata, M. repens and M. trifoliolata
D.T.	Malus domestica	Apple	Fruit	Sunny position
	All species of Malus have edible fruits though they are often not very palatable.  Some of the most palatable include M. floribunda, M. fusca, M. praecox, M. prunifolia rinki, M. sieversii and M. trilobata
E.SH.	Margyricarpus pinnatus	Pearl Berry	Fruit	Sunny position.  Well-drained, not rich soil
D.T.	Melia azedarach	Bead Tree	Leaves	Mild areas only
D.T.	Melicytus ramiflorus		Fruit	Mild areas only.  Dioecious
D.SH.	Menziesia ferruginea		Fruit	Sun or light shade.  Well-drained lime-free soil
D.T.	Mespilus germanica	Medlar	Fruit, bletted	Most soils.  Sunny position
D.CL.	Metaplexis japonica		Root, young leaves, fruit	Most soils.  Mild areas
D.SH.	Micromeria juliana		Leaves - a savoury flavouring	Well-drained soils
E.SH.	Mitchella repens	Partridge Berry	Fruit	Lime-free soil.  Shady position
D.T.	Morus alba	White Mulberry	Fruit, young leaves	Sunny position.  Warm, well-drained soil
D.T.	Morus nigra	Black Mulberry	Fruit	Sunny position.  Warm, well-drained soil
	Other species include M. australis, M. mongolica, M. rubra and M. serrata
D.CL.	Muehlenbeckia adpressa		Fruit	Very mild areas only
D.SH.	Myrica gale	Sweet Gale	Leaves and berries - a flavouring	Most soils, preferably lime-free.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Myrica rubra		Fruit	Mild areas.  Lime-free soil
	Other species used as a flavouring include M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica
E.SH.	Myrsine africana		Fruit	
E.SH.	Myrtus communis	Myrtle	Fruit - a flavouring	Mild areas.  Most soils
E.SH.	Myrtus luma		Fruit  - sweet	Mild areas.  Most soils
	Other species include M. nummularia and M. ugni

E.SH.	Nandina domestica	Sacred Bamboo	Fruit, young leaves	Best in mild areas.  Rich soil.  Sunny position
D.SH.	Nemopanthus mucronata		Fruit	Cold damp soil
D.T.	Nyssa sylvatica	Tupelo	Fruit	Dislikes lime

D.SH.	Oemleria cerasiformis	Oso Berry	Fruit	Most soils.  Dioecious
E.T.	Olea europaea	Olive	Fruit, oil from fruit	Sunny position.  Mild areas only
D.SH.	Oplopanax horridus		Young shoots	Cool moist soil.  Dense shade
E.SH.	Osteomeles schwerinae		Fruit	Mild areas
D.T.	Oxydendron arboreum	Sorrel Tree	Leaves	Well drained lime-free soil.  Likes shade

D.CL.	Parthenocissus quinquefolia		Fruit, stalks	Self-supports on walls
D.CL.	Parthenocissus tricuspidata		Sap	Self-supports on walls
D.CL.	Passiflora mollissima		Fruit - not freely borne	Best in mild areas
	Other species include P.  edulis and P. incarnata
D.SH.	Peraphyllum ramosissimum		Fruit - rarely borne	Very sunny position
E.SH.	Pernettya leucocarpa		Fruit	Lime-free well-drained soil.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Pernettya pumila		Fruit	Lime-free well-drained soil.  Dioecious
E.T.	Photinia arbutifolia	Californian Maybush	Fruit	Mild areas
E.T.	Picea sitchensis	Sitka Spruce	Young shoots	Wet soils.  Tolerates exposed positions
E.T.	Pinus albicaulis	Whitebark Pine	Seed	Open, well-drained soil.  Best in cold areas
E.T.	Pinus koraiensis	Korean Pine	Seed	Best in west and north Britain.  Open, well-drained soil
E.T.	Pinus pinea	Stone Pine	Seed	Succeeds on chalk
	Other species include P. armandii, P. bungeana, P. cembra, P. cembroides, P. coulteri, P. culminicola, P. densiflora, P. edulis, P. flexilis, P. gerardiana, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana (sap also is edible),
	P. monophylla, P. monticolor, P. ponderosa, P. pumila, P. quadrifolia, P. remota, P. sibirica and P. torreyana
E.T.	Pinus sabiniana	Digger Pine	Seed	Sunny position.  Most soils
D.T.	Pistacia chinensis		Seed, young shoots and leaves	Most soils.  Sunny position
E.SH.	Pistacia lentiscus	Mastic	Oil from seed	Mild areas.  Sunny position.  Most soils
D.T.	Pistacia terebinthus		Fruit, oil from seed	Most soils.  Sunny position
E.SH.	Pittosporum phillyraeoides		Seed - bitter	Most soils
E.SH.	Podocarpus nivalis		Fruit	Mild areas.  Dioecious
D.T.	Podocarpus totara	Totara	Fruit	Best in mild areas.  Dioecious
D.T.	Poncirus trifoliata		Fruit, young leaves	Most soils. Sunny position
D.T.	Populus wislizenii		Catkins	Dislikes shallow or dry soils
D.T.	Populus sieboldii		Young leaves and shoots	
	Other species with edible leaves include P. simonii and P. sargentii
D.T.	Populus fremontii		Inner bark, catkins	Dislikes shallow or dry soils
	The following also have edible inner bark: P. angustifolia, P. alba, P. deltoides, P. grandidentata, P. sargentii, P. tremula and P. tremuloides
D.SH.	Prinsepia utilis		Fruit, oil from seed	Sunny position.  Light, not too fertile soil
	Other species with edible fruits include P. sinensis and P. uniflora
E.T.	Prumnopitys andina	Plum-Fruited Yew	Fruit, seed	Most soils.  Dioecious
E.T.	Prumnopitys spicata	Matai	Fruit	Mild areas.  Dioecious
D.T.	Prunus armeniaca	Apricot	Fruit, oil from seed	Warm sunny position.  Some lime in the soil
D.T.	Prunus avium 	Bird Cherry	Fruit, gum from trunk	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil.  Parent of Sweet Cherries
D.T.	Prunus cerasifera	Cherry Plum	Fruit	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil with some lime
D.T.	Prunus cerasus	Sour Cherry	Fruit, gum from trunk, oil from seed	Most soils.  Sunny position.  Parent of many cherries
D.T.	Prunus domestica	Plum	Fruit, gum from trunk, oil from seed	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil with some lime
D.T.	Prunus dulcis	Almond	Seed, gum from trunk, oil from seed	Sunny sheltered position.  Well-drained soil with some lime
D.T.	Prunus insititia	Damson/Bullace	Fruit	Most soils.  Sunny position
D.T.	Prunus persica	Peach/Nectarine	Fruit, gum from trunk, oil from seed	Sunny sheltered position.  Well-drained soil
	All species of Prunus contain quantities of prussic acid, especially in the leaves and seeds.  This is easily detected by a bitter almond-like flavour.  If this flavour is not noticed or is only 
	very mild then the fruit or seed of any species is edible though not always very palatable.  Other species worth trying include P. americana, P. canescens, P. dasycarpa, 
	P. divaricata, P. grayana, P. humilis, P. laurocerasus, P. maritima, P. mira, P. mume, P orthosepala, P. padus, P. pseudocerasus, P. pumila, P. salicifolia, P. serotina, P. simonii, 
	P. spinosa, P. subcordata, P. tomentosa, P. virginiana and P. watsonii
D.T.	Pseudocydonia sinensis		Fruit	Sunny position.  Most soils
E.T.	Pseudotsuga menziesii	Douglas Fir	Young shoot tips	Moist soils.  Dislikes lime
D.SH.	Ptelea baldwinii		Seed	Most soils if well-drained
D.T.	Pterocarya fraxinifolia	Wing Nut	Seed	Sunny position.  Rich soil, preferably moist
D.T.	Punica granatum	Pomegranate	Fruit - not usually borne	Well-drained soil
E.SH.	Pyracantha angustifolia		Fruit	Full sun, well-drained soil.  Tolerates chalk
E.SH.	Pyracantha coccinea	Pyracanth	Fruit	Full sun, well-drained soil.  Tolerates chalk
D.SH.	Pyrularia pubera	Oil Nut	Fruit, oil from fruit	Parasitic on roots of trees and shrubs
D.T.	Pyrus communis	Pear	Fruit	Sunny position.  Well-drained soils
	All species yield more or less edible fruits.  Some of those worth trying include P. pashia, P. pyrifolia and P. ussuriensis

E.T.	Quercus ilex	Holm Oak	Seed	Most soils.  Very wind resistant
D.T.	Quercus prinus	Chestnut Oak	Seed	Good deep loam
	The seed of all species is a good source of carbohydrates although in many species the seed is also rich in tannin which is bitter and indigestible.  Unfortunately, some of most palatable 
	species do not fruit well in Britain though the following could be worth trying: Q. alba, Q. douglasii, Q. emoryi, Q. gambelii, Q. muhlenbergii and Q. virginiana

D.T.	Rhamnus caroliniana	Indian Cherry	Fruit	Most soils.  Might not be very hardy
D.T.	Rhamnus purshiana	Cascara Sagrada	Fruit	Most soils
E.SH.	Rhaphiolepis indica	Indian Hawthorn	Fruit	Mild areas only.  Sunny position, fertile soil
E.SH.	Rhaphiolepis umbellata		Seed	Sunny position, fertile soil
D.SH.	Rhus glabra	Smooth Sumach	Fruit	Sunny position.  Most soils
	The fruit of the above species is often steeped in warm water for 10 minutes to make a very refreshing drink.  Other species with edible fruits that can also be used in this way include R. 
	aromatica, R. copallina, R. integrifolia, R. punjabensis, R. trilobata and R. typhina
D.SH.	Ribes divaricatum	Worcesterberry	Fruit	Most soils
D.SH.	Ribes nigrum	Blackcurrant	Fruit	Most soils if rich in humus
D.SH.	Ribes rubrum	Redcurrant	Fruit	Most soils
D.SH.	Ribes uva-crispa	Gooseberry	Fruit	Most soils.  Dislikes clay
	The fruit of all species of Ribes is edible but not always very palatable.  Some other species worth trying include R. aciculare, R. altissimum, R. americanum, R. aureum, 
	R. bracteosum, R. cynosbati, R. hirtellum, R. longeracemosum, R. meyeri, R. montigenum, R. odoratum, R. oxyacanthoides, R. palczewskii, R. pauciflorum, R. procumbens, 
	R. rotundifolium, R. sachalinense, R. sanguineum and R. valdivianum
D.T.	Robinia pseudoacacia	Locust	Flowers.  Seed - must be cooked	Most soils
D.SH.	Rosa rugosa	Ramanas Rose	Fruit, seed, flowers	Most soils
D.SH.	Rosa villosa	Apple Rose	Fruit, seed	Most soils.  Sunny position
	The fruit of all species of Rosa is more or less edible, though the flesh is often very thin and there is a layer of seed hairs just below the flesh that can cause irritation if eaten.  The 
	following species are also worth trying: R. acicularis, R. californica, R. canina, R. centifolia, R. macrophylla, R. majalis, R. nutkana and R. sericea
E.SH.	Rosmarinus officinalis	Rosemary	Leaves	Sunny position.  Light, dry soil
D.CL.	Rubus discolor	Himalayan Giant Blackberry	Fruit	Most soils
D.CL.	Rubus fruticosus	Blackberry	Fruit, root	Most soils
D.SH.	Rubus idaeus	Raspberry	Fruit	Dislikes very heavy soils
D.SH.	Rubus laciniatus	Parsley-Leaved Blackberry	Fruit	Most soils
D.SH.	Rubus loganobaccus	Loganberry	Fruit	Well-drained soil
D.SH.	Rubus phoenicolasius	Japanese Wineberry	Fruit	Most soils
	A very large genus, the fruit of all species is more or less edible.  Some of the most noteworthy include R. allegheniensis, R. amabilis, R. biflorus, R. caesius, R. corchorifolius, 
	R. flagelliflorus, R. ichangensis, R. innominatus, R. kuntzeanus, R. lasiostylus, R. leucodermis, R. occidentalis, R. palmatus, R. parviflorus, R. setchuensis and R. tricolor

D.T.	Salix daphnoides		Inner bark, young flowering shoots	Most soils.  Dioecious
D.T.	Salix alba	White Willow	Leaves, inner bark	Rich soil.  Dioecious
	Salix alba is only used for food in times of scarcity.  The following species have also been used: S. babylonica, S. bakko, S. chaenomeloides, S. gracilistyla, S. japonica and S. nipponica
D.SH.	Sambucus nigra	Elder	Flowers, fruit	Most soils and positions
	Other species include S. caerulea, S. callicarpa, S. canadensis, S. melanocarpa, S. pubens and S. racemosa
D.SH.	Sarcobatus vermiculata	Greasewood	Seed, twigs	Most soils
D.T.	Sassafras albidum	Sassafras	Leaves, bark and fruit - a condiment	Deep fertile soil, sheltered position.  Dioecious
E.SH.	Satureia montana	Winter Savoury	Leaves, a flavouring	Well-drained poor stony soil
D.CL.	Schisandra chinensis		Fruit, young leaves	Rich soil
	Other species with edible fruits include S. grandiflora, S. henryi and S. repanda
D.SH.	Shepherdia  argentea	Buffalo Berry	Fruit	Well-drained moist soil
D.SH.	Shepherdia canadensis		Fruit - rarely borne	Most well-drained soils
D.CL.	Sinofranchetia chinensis		Fruit	Most soils
D.CL.	Sinomenium acutum		Root, leaves	Most soils
E.CL.	Smilax aspera	Sarsaparilla	Root - used in soft drinks. Shoots	Very mild areas only.  Any soil. Dioecious
D.CL.	Smilax  bona-nox		Root, young shoots	Any soil.  Dioecious
D.CL.	Smilax  china	China Root	Root, young shoots, fruit	Any soil.  Dioecious
	Other species with similar uses include S. hispida, S. laurifolia, S. pseudo-china and S. rotundifolia
E.SH.	Solanum aviculare	Kangaroo Apple	Fruit	Very mild areas.  Any soil
D.T.	Sorbus aria	Whitebeam	Fruit - bletted	Sunny position. Most soils
D.T.	Sorbus aucuparia	Rowan	Fruit	The variety Edulis is best. Most soils in cool position.  Very wind resistant
D.T.	Sorbus domestica	Service Tree	Fruit - bletted	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil
	Other species worth trying include S. americana, S. commixta, S. devoniensis, S. gracilis, S. hybrida, S. intermedia, S. lanata, S. mougeotii, S. sambucifolia and S. torminalis
E.CL.	Stauntonia hexaphylla		Fruit	Mild areas only.  Dioecious

D.SH.	Tamarix gallica	Manna Plant	Manna from stem	Sunny position.  Deep loamy soil.  Very wind resistant
E.T.	Taxus baccata	Yew	Fruit - sweet	Most soils.  Shade tolerant.  Leaves and seeds poisonous
	Other species also with poisonous leaves and seeds but edible fruits include T. brevifolia, T, canadensis and T. cuspidata
E.SH.	Thymus vulgaris	Common Thyme	Leaves	Dry sunny position
	Other species include T. capitata, T. drucei and T. serpyllum
D.T.	Tilia x europaea	Common Lime	Leaves, sap.Flowers a chocolate substitute	Sunny position.  Most soils.  Wind resistant
	Other species include T. americana, T. cordata, T. japonica, T. platyphyllos and T. mongolica
D.T.	Toona sinensis	Chinese Cedar	Leaves and young shoots	Thrives on chalk
E.T.	Torreya nucifera	Kaya	Seed, oil from seed	Most soils.  Prefers heavy shade
	Other species include T. californica, T. fargesii, T. grandis, T. jackii and T. yunnanensis
E.T.	Trachycarpus fortunei	Chusan Palm	Young flower buds	Rich soil.  Sheltered position
E.SH.	Triphasia aurantiola 	Lime Berry	Fruit	Very mild areas only.  Good loamy soil
E.T.	Tsuga heterophylla		Inner bark	Dislikes chalk.  Prefers areas of heavy rainfall
	Inner bark is usually only eaten in times of shortage.  Other species include T. canadensis and T. mertensiana

D.T.	Ulmus glabra	Wych Elm	Leaves, immature fruits	Most soils
	Dutch Elm Disease has destroyed most Elm trees in Britain.  However the trees often survive as suckers and a few forms are more resistant to the disease.  Other species mentioned as 
	edible include U. japonica, U. parvifolia, U. procera and U. pumila
E.T.	Umbellularia californica	California Laurel 	Seed, leaves - a condiment	Dislikes chalk.  Prefers a moist soil

D.SH.	Vaccinium corymbosum	Blueberry	Fruit	Acid soils only
E.SH.	Vaccinium macrocarpon	Cranberry	Fruit	Moist or semi-boggy acid peaty soil
D.SH.	Vaccinium myrtillus	Bilberry	Fruit	Moist acid peaty soil.  Best in an exposed position
E.SH.	Vaccinium oxycoccus	Small Cranberry	Fruit	Moist or semi-boggy acid peaty soil.  Sunny position
D.SH.	Vaccinium praestans	Fruit	Moist acid soil.  Best in Scotland and northern Britain
	Vaccinium is a large genus, all the species bearing more or less edible fruits.  Some of the nicer ones include V. angustifolium, V. ashei, V. atrococcum, V. caespitosum, 
	V. canadense, V. deliciosum, V. floribundum, V. hirsutum, V. oldhamii, V ovatum, V. padifolium, V. parvifolium, V. scoparium and V. vacillans
D.SH.	Viburnum edule		Fruit	Dislikes poor soils
D.SH.	Viburnum lantanoides	Hobbleberry	Fruit	Woodlands.  Rich soil
D.T.	Viburnum prunifolium	Stagberry	Fruit	Dislikes poor dry soils
	Other species include V. cassinoides, V. cotinifolium, V. dilatatum, V. erosum, V. farreri, V. grandiflorum, V. lentago, V nudum, V. opulus. V oulus americanum and V. sieboldii
D.SH.	Vitex agnus-castus	Chaste Tree	Fruit - pepper substitute	Mild areas.  Warm position
D.CL.	Vitis vinifera	Grape	Leaves, tendrils, sap, fruit, oil from seed	Sunny, warm position
	Many other species are also edible though fruiting is problematic in Britain.  They include V. aestivalis, V. cordifolia, V. davidii, V. riparia, V. rotundifolia and V. rupestris

E.T.	Weinmannia racemosa		Fruit	Mild areas only.  Light rich soil

D.T.	Xanthoceras sorbifolium		Leaves, flowers, fruit	Warm sunny position

E.SH.	Yucca filamentosa	Spoonleaf Yucca	Fruit	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil.  Dislikes peaty or chalky soils
E.SH.	Yucca glauca	Soapweed	Fruit, flower stalks, flowers	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil.  Dislikes peaty or chalky soils
E.SH.	Yucca gloriosa		Root	Sunny position.  Well-drained soil.  Dislikes peaty or chalky soils
E.SH.	Yucca baccata	Spanish Bayonet	Fruit, seed, flowers and stalks	Mild areas.  Sunny position.  Well-drained soil
	Other species include Y. angustissima, Y. harrimaniae and Y. whipplei

D.SH.	Zanthoxylum piperitum	Pepper Tree	Young leaves, seed and bark - a spice	
	Other species include Z. alatum, Z. americanum, Z. planispinum, Z. schinifolium and Z. simulans
D.T.	Ziziphus zizyphus	Jujube	Fruit	Mild areas only.  Most soils


CL. Climber
D. Deciduous
E. Evergreen
SH. Shrub
T. Tree
DIOECIOUS means that all the flowers on a plant are either male or female and plants of both sexes must be grown in order to produce seeds.

When using this list it is important to remember that it can only contain a small portion of the information we hold on each plant. You are stronglt advised to seek more information on any plant before making use of it in the manner suggested. This is especially important with any of the comments on edibility. Information sheets on individual species can be obtained from Plants for a Future website.