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Athyrium filix-femina - (L.)Roth. ex Mert.                
                 
Common Name Lady Fern, Common ladyfern, Subarctic ladyfern, Asplenium ladyfern, Southern Lady Fern, Tatting Fer
Family Dryopteridaceae
Synonyms Asplenium felix-femina
Known Hazards The fresh shoots contain thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase[172]. Although we have found no reports for this species, a number of ferns also contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable[200].
Habitats Moist sheltered woods, hedgebanks and ravines[4], usually on acidic soils but also found in drier and more open habitats[187].
Range Throughout the N. Temperate zone, including Britain, to the mountains of India, tropical S. America.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade

Summary       
Form: Irregular or sprawling.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of fern
Athyrium filix-femina is a deciduous Fern growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 2. The seeds ripen from Jul to August.

USDA hardiness zone : 3-8


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.

Athyrium filix-femina Lady Fern, Common ladyfern, Subarctic ladyfern,  Asplenium ladyfern, Southern Lady Fern, Tatting Fer


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Abalg
Athyrium filix-femina Lady Fern, Common ladyfern, Subarctic ladyfern,  Asplenium ladyfern, Southern Lady Fern, Tatting Fer
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Piotrus
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; not Deep Shade; Ground Cover; Hedgerow;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Root.
Edible Uses:

Young shoots, harvested before they have fully unfolded, can be eaten cooked[256]. They must not be eaten raw - see the notes above on toxicity[172]. Used in spring, they are a bitter emergency food[172]. Rhizome - peeled and slow-baked[118, 257]. Reports that the root of this plant were eaten by native North American Indians are likely to be mistaken, it was probably Dryopteris expansa that was used[256].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic;  Diuretic;  Poultice;  Women's complaints.

A tea of the boiled stems has been used to relieve labour pains[213, 222, 257]. The young unfurled fronds have been eaten to treat internal ailments such as cancer of the womb[257]. The roots are anthelmintic and diuretic[4, 222]. A tea of the boiled roots has been used to treat general body pains[213, 257], to stop breast pains caused by childbirth and to induce milk flow in caked breasts[222, 257]. The dried powdered root has been applied externally to heal sores[222, 257]. A liquid extract of the root is an effective anthelmintic, though it is less powerful than the male fern, Dryopteris felix-mas[4].
Other Uses
A good ground cover plant[200], forming a slowly spreading clump[208]. The cultivar 'Minor' has a denser habit and spreads more freely, making a better cover[208].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Ground cover, Massing, Woodland garden. An easily grown plant[4], it is calcifuge and prefers an acid soil with a pH from 4.5 to 6.5, but it tolerates alkaline soils if plenty of leaf mould is added[200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist sheltered site with moderately high atmospheric humidity[200]. A very ornamental [1] and polymorphic species, there are many named varieties selected for their ornamental value[187]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Spores - surface sow in a pot of sterile compost in a shady part of the greenhouse and keep moist, this is most easily done by putting the pot in a plastic bag. Pot up small clumps of the plants when they are large enough to handle and keep them moist until they are established. Plant out in late spring of the following year. Division in spring as plants come into growth. Larger divisions can be planted straight into their permanent positions whilst smaller clumps are best potted up and kept in a cold frame until they are growing away well.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(L.)Roth. ex Mert.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
17200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[118]Gunther. E. Ethnobotany of Western Washington.
A small book, it is a good guide to useful plants in Western N. America.
[172]Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest.
A nice guide to some useful plants in that area.
[187]Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2.
Photographs of over 3,000 species and cultivars of ornamental plants together with brief cultivation notes, details of habitat etc.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[208]Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover
An excellent detailled book on the subject, very comprehensive.
[213]Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food.
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222]Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[233]Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
[256]Turner. N. J. Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples
Excellent little handbook about the native food plants of Western Canada. Good descriptions of the plants and their uses with colour photos of most plants.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

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