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Checklist of plants suitable for ground cover

This is the old version of the list, you can find a version split into A-Z catogries Here.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Acaenia anserinifolia Pirri-pirri bur P E 0.10 6 LMH SN M ANB F Leaves used for tea.
Acanthus mollis Bear's breeches P   1.20   LM SN DM ANB S Drought tolerant.
Adiantum venustum   F E 0.25 9 LMH S M ANB M    
Aegopodium podagraria Ground elder P   0.60 5 LMH FSN M ANB F Edible leaves.
Ajuga australis   P E 0.15 6 LMH N DM ANB F  
Ajuga reptans Bugle P E 0.30 6 LMH FSN DMWe ANB M Edible young shoots. Drought tolerant.
Alchemilla vulgaris Lady's mantle P   0.30 5 LMH SN DM NB S Edible young leaves.
Antennaria dioica Catsfoot P E 0.12 5 L N DM ANB S Tolerates poor soil and drought.
Arabis caucasica Rock cress P E 0.15 4 LMH SN DM ANB M Edible leaves. Tolerates poor soil and drought.
Arctostaphylos nevadensis Pine-mat manzanita Sh E 0.10 6 LM SN M A M Edible fruit and seed. Dye.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry Sh E 0.10 4 LM FSN M ANB M Edible fruit. Dye.
Arisarum vulgare Friar's cowl P   0.45 7 LM FS M ANB   Edible root if thoroughly cooked.
Armeria maritima Thrift P E 0.10 4 LM N DM ANB M Edible leaves. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Artemesia ludoviciana White sage P   1.00 5 LM SN DM NB M Condiment, leaves, tea. Drought tolerant.
Artemesia stelleriana Beach wormwood P E 0.50 3 LM N DM ANB M Condiment, tea. Medicinal. Drought tolerant.
Asarum canadense Snake root P   0.30 2 LMH FS M ANB S Root is a ginger substitute. Medicinal.
Asarum caudatum   P E 0.10 7 LMH FS M AN S Root is a ginger substitute.
Asarum europaeum Asarabacca P E 0.10 4 LMH FS M ANB S Dye. Medicinal.
Asarum shuttleworthii   P E 0.10 6 LMH FS M AN S Root is a ginger substitute.
Aspidistra elatior Aspidistra P E 0.60 7 LMH FS DM ANB S Medicinal. Tolerates drought and poor soils.
Asplenium scolopendrium Hart's tongue Fern F E 0.60 5 LM FS DM ANB M Medicinal.
Athyrium felix-femina Lady Fern F   0.60 2 LMH FS M ANB M Edible young shoots and root - they must be well cooked.
Aubrietia deltoidea Aubretia P E 0.15 7 LM SN DM ANB M Drought tolerant.
Aurinia saxatilis Golden alyssum P E 0.25 3 LMH N DM ANB M Tolerates drought and poor soils.
Baccharis pilularis Chaparral broom Sh E 0.50 8 LMH N DM ANB M Tolerates poor soils. A good ground stabilizer.
Baccharis viminea Mule fat Sh E 4.00 8 LMH N DM ANB M Tolerates poor soils. A good ground stabilizer.
Ballota pseudodictamnus   P E 0.60 8 LMH N DM ANB M Flowers are used as candle wicks.
Bergenia ciliata   P E 0.30 7 LMH SN M ANB M Medicinal. Tolerates poor soils.
Bergenia crassifolia   P E 0.30 3 LMH FSN M ANB S A tea is made from the leaves.
Bergenia purpurascens   P E 0.45 4 LMH SN M ANB S Medicinal.
Blechnum spicant Hard Fern F E 0.30 5 LMH FSN M AN S Root and young leaves - cooked.
Brachyglottis 'Sunshine'   Sh E 1.50 8 LMH N M ANB S Tolerates maritime exposure and drought.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Calluna vulgaris Heather Sh E 0.60 4 LM SN DM A M Tea, dye, thatching, basketry, brooms.
Campanula portenschlagiana   P   0.25 3 LM SN M NB F Edible leaves.
Campanula poscharskyana   P E 0.25 3 LM SN M NB F Edible leaves.
Campsis radicans Trumpet vine Cl D 12.00 4 LMH SN M ANB F Medicinal.
Carex elata Tufted sedge P E 1.20 7 LMH SN MWe ANB M Edible root and seed.
Ceanothus prostratus Squaw carpet Sh E 0.05 7 LM SN DM ANB M Dye, soap substitute.
Ceanothus purpureus Hollyleaf ceanothus Sh E 2.00 8 LM SN DM ANB M Dye, soap substitute.
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus Blue brush Sh E 4.50 7 LM SN DM ANB M Dye, soap substitute. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Centaurea montana Mountain cornflower P   0.45 3 LMH N DM ANB F Succeeds in poor soils.
Cephalotaxus fortunei Chinese plum yew Sh E 6.00 7 LMH FSN M ANB S Edible seed and fruit.
Chaenomeles speciosa Japanese quince Sh D 3.00 5 LMH FSN M ANB M Edible fruit.
Chaenomeles x superba Dwarf quince Sh D 1.00 5 LMH FSN M ANB F Edible fruit.
Chamaemelum nobile Chamomile P E 0.15 4 LMH SN DM ANB M Tea, condiment, hair shampoo, dye, companion plant, liquid feed and plant tonic, medicinal.
Chelidonium majus Greater celandine P   0.50 6 LMH FSN M ANB F Medicinal. A weed in the garden, only use it in wild areas.
Chrysosplenium alternifolium Golden saxifrage P   0.30 4 LMH SN MWe ANB M Edible leaves.
Chrysosplenium americanum Water mat P   0.10 3 LMH SN MWe ANB M Condiment.
Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Golden saxifrage P   0.15 5 LMH SN MWe ANB M Edible leaves.
Cistus salviifolius Rock rose Sh E 0.60 8 LM N DM ANB M Condiment. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Clematis orientalis   Cl D 2.00 6 LMH SN M ANB F Medicinal.
Convallaria keiskei Lily of the valley P   0.30 3 LMH FSN DMWe ANB S Medicinal.
Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley P   0.15 3 LMH FSN DMWe ANB S Essential oil, dye. Medicinal.
Coprosma acerosa brunnea   Sh E 0.10 8 LM SN M AN S Edible fruit. Coffee substitute. Dye.
Coptis brachypetala   P E 0.22   LM S M A M Dye.
Coptis chinensis   P E 0.20   LMH SN MWe A   Medicinal.
Coptis deltoidea   P E     LMH SN MWe A   Medicinal.
Coptis japonica   P E 0.22 7 LMH SN M A   Medicinal.
Coptis occidentalis   P E 0.15 4 LMH SN M A   Dye. Medicinal.
Coptis teeta   P E 0.15   LMH SN M A   Medicinal.
Coptis teetoides   P E     LMH SN M A   Medicinal.
Coptis trifolia Goldthread P E 0.15 2 LMH S M A   Dye. Medicinal.
Coriaria microphylla   Sh D 1.20 8 LMH SN M ANB M Dye, ink, tannin.
Cornus canadensis Creeping dogwood P   0.25 2 LMH SN M AN M Edible fruit.
Cornus suecica Dwarf cornel P   0.15 2 LM SN M AN M Edible fruit.
Coronilla varia Crown vetch P   0.30 6 LMH N DM ANB M Insecticide. Soil stabilizer. Tolerates maritime exposure and poor soils.
Cotoneaster conspicuus   Sh E 3.00 6 LMH SN M ANB M Dye. Wind tolerant.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Cotoneaster microphyllus   Sh E 1.00 5 LMH SN M ANB S Dye. Wind tolerant.
Cyathodes colensoi   Sh E 0.45 8 LMH S M AN S Edible fruit.
Cyathodes fraseri   Sh E 0.15 8 LMH FS M AN S Edible fruit.
Cystopterus bulbifera   F     5 LMH FS M ANB F Edible root. The plant can become invasive.
Cytisus scoparius Broom Sh D 2.40 5 LMH SN DM ANB F Succeeds on poor soils. Condiment, coffee substitute, fibre, dye, brooms. Medicinal.
Dactylis glomerata Cock's foot P   1.00 5 LMH SN M ANB F A food plant for native wildlife.
Darmera peltata Umbrella plant P   2.00 6 LMH SN WeWa ANB   Edible leaf stalk. Soil stabilization.
Deschampsia caespitosa Tussock grass P   1.50 5 LMH SN MWe ANB M Edible seed.
Dianthus gratianopolitanus Cheddar pink P   0.30 3 LMH N D NB M  
Dryas octopetala Mountain avens Sh E 0.10 2 LMH N M ANB M Tea substitute.
Dryopteris felix-mas Male Fern F   1.20 2 LMH S DM AN M Edible young fronds - must be cooked.
Duchesnea indica   P   0.10 6 LMH N M ANB F Edible fruit.
Elymus arenarius Lyme grass P   1.20 6 LMH N DM ANB F Weaving, soil stabilization. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Empetrum atropurpureum Purple crowberry Sh E 0.20   LM SN M A S Edible fruit. Wind tolerant.
Empetrum eamesii Rockberry Sh E 0.15 3 LM SN M A S Edible fruit. Wind tolerant.
Empetrum eamesii hermaphroditum Mountain crowberry Sh E 0.30 3 LMH N M AN S Edible fruit. Wind tolerant.
Empetrum nigrum Crowberry Sh E 0.30 3 LMH SN M AN S Edible fruit. Dye. Wind tolerant.
Empetrum rubrum   Sh E 0.30 8 LMH sn M AN S Edible fruit. Wind tolerant.
Epigaea asiatica   Sh E 0.10 4 LM FS M AN   Edible fruit.
Epimedium grandiflorum   P   0.35 5 LMH S M ANB   Young leaves - cooked.
Epimedium sagittatum   P   0.50 6 LMH S M ANB   Young leaves - cooked.
Erica vagans Cornish heath Sh E 0.75 5 LM N DM AN M Dye, brooms, thatching.
Erica x darleyensis   Sh E 0.60 6 LM N M ANB M Dye, brooms, thatching.
Euonymus fortunei   Sh E 4.50 5 LMH FSN DM ANB M Plants can also be grown as a hedge.
Fragaria californica Californian strawberry P   0.30   LMH SN M ANB F Edible fruit.
Fragaria daltoniana   P   0.30   LMH SN M ANB F Edible fruit.
Fragaria moschata Hautbois strawberry P   0.45 6 LMH SN M ANB F Edible fruit.
Fragaria viridis Green strawberry P   0.30 6 LMH SN M ANB F Edible fruit.
Galium mollugo Hedge bedstraw P   1.20 3 LMH S DM ANB M Edible leaves. Dye.
Galium odoratum Sweet woodruff P   0.15 5 LMH fs DM ANB M Edible leaves, tea. Dye. Medicinal.
Gaultheria adenothrix   Sh E 0.30 9 LM FS M AN M Edible fruit.
Gaultheria depressa Mountain snowberry Sh E 0.10 9 LM sn M AN M Edible fruit.
Gaultheria hispidula Creeping snowberry Sh E 0.10 6 LM S M AN F Edible fruit.
Gaultheria humifusa Alpine wintergreen Sh E 0.10 7 LM sn M AN   Edible fruit.
Gaultheria macrostigma   Sh E 0.50 8 LM S M A   Edible fruit.
Gaultheria mucronata   Sh E 1.50 6 LM SN M A   Edible fruit.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Gaultheria myrsinoides   Sh E 0.15 9 LM SN M A   Edible fruit.
Gaultheria nummularioides   Sh E 0.10 9 LM SN M AN   Edible fruit.
Gaultheria ovatifolia Checkerberry Sh E 0.15 6 LM FS M AN M Edible fruit.
Gaultheria procumbens Checkerberry Sh E 0.15 4 LM FS DM AN M Edible fruit and leaves. Tea. Essential oil, Medicinal.
Gaultheria pumila leucocarpa   Sh E 0.20 7 LM SN M A F Edible fruit.
Gaultheria shallon Shallon Sh E 1.20 5 LM FS DM A M Edible fruit. Tea. Dye.
Gaultheria tricophylla   Sh E 0.10 8 LM SN M AN   Edible fruit.
Gaultheria x wisleyensis   Sh E 1.00 6 LM FS M A   Edible fruit.
Gaylussacia brachycera Box huckleberry Sh E 0.45 6 LMH SN DM A   Edible fruit.
Genista hispanica Spanish gorse Sh D 0.50 6 LM N DM ANB   Medicinal. Drought tolerant.
Geranium macrorrhizum   P   0.50 4 LMH SN DM NB F Essential oil.
Geranium sylvaticum Wood cranesbill P   0.60 4 LMH FSN M ANB F Essential oil.
Geranium wallichianum   P   0.30 7 LMH sn M ANB F Dye.
Glechoma hederacea Ground ivy P E 0.20   MH S M ANB F Edible leaves. Tea.
Hebe 'Great Orme'   Sh E 1.00 6 LMH N M ANB M Can also be used as a hedge. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Hebe rakaiensis   Sh E 1.00 6 LMH N M ANB M Can also be grown as a hedge.
Hedera helix Ivy Cl E 15.00 5 LMH FSN MWe ANB M Dye, hair shampoo. An excellent plant for wildlife.
Herniaria glabra Rupture wort Bi/P   0.02 5 LM N DM ANB S Medicinal.
Heuchera americana Rock geranium P E 0.45 4 LM SN M ANB   Mordant.
Heuchera cylindrica Alum root P E 0.45 4 LM SN M ANB   Edible leaves. Mordant.
Heuchera diversifolia Alum root P E 0.45 5 LM SN M ANB   Edible leaves. Mordant.
Heuchera glabra   P E 0.60 4 LM SN M ANB   Edible leaves. Mordant.
Heuchera micrantha Alum root P E 0.60 5 LM SN M ANB   Edible leaves. Mordant.
Heuchera sanguinea Alum root P E 0.60 6 LM SN M ANB   Mordant.
Heuchera versicolor   P E 0.20 9 LM SN M ANB   Mordant.
Hosta crispula   P   0.30   LMH SN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Hosta longipes   P   0.30   LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Hosta plantaginae   P   0.25   LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Hosta rectifolia   P   0.20   LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Hosta sieboldiana   P   0.60   LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Hosta undulata   P   0.30   LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Hosta ventricosa   P   0.25 5 LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves and stems.
Houttuynia cordata Tsi P   0.60 5 LMH S MWeWa ANB F Edible leaves.
Hydrangea anomala   Cl D 12.00 5 LMH FSN M ANB M Edible leaves. Sugar. Paper. Wind tolerant.
Hypericum androsaemum Tutsan Sh D 1.00 6 LMH SN DM ANB M Medicinal. Wind tolerant.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Hypericum bellum   Sh E 0.70 6 LMH SN M ANB  
Hypericum calycinum Rose of Sharon Sh E 0.30 6 LMH FSN DM ANB F Dye.
Imperata cylindrica   P   1.20 8 LMH N DM ANB F Edible young shoots and root. Weaving, paper making, thatching. Tolerates maritime exposure
Iris foetidissima Stinking gladwin P E 0.60 6 LMH FSN DM ANB S Medicinal. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Juniperus communis Juniper Sh E 9.00 2 LMH SN DM ANB S Edible fruit, condiment, coffee, tea. Essential oil, incense, insect repellent. Medicinal.
Juniperus communis nana Juniper Sh E 9.00 2 LMH SN DM ANB S Same as above.
Juniperus conferta Shore juniper Sh E   5 LMH SN DM ANB S Edible fruit. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Juniperus horizontalis Creeping juniper Sh E 1.00 4 LMH N DM ANB S Coffee, tea. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Juniperus sabina Savine Sh E 4.00 3 LMH N DM ANB S Essential oil, parasiticide, insect repellent.
Juniperus squamata Flaky juniper Sh E 8.00 5 LMH N DM ANB S Medicinal. Drought tolerant.
Lamium album White dead nettle P   0.60 4 LMH SN M ANB M Edible young leaves.
Lamium galeobdolon Yellow archangel P   0.30 6 LMH FSN M ANB F Edible young leaves and flowers.
Lathyrus latifolius Perennial sweet pea P Cl   2.00 5 LMH SN DM ANB F Seed, seedpods and young plants might be edible. Drought tolerant.
Liriope graminifolia   P E 0.30 8 LM SN DM ANB M Edible root. Drought tolerant.
Liriope minor   P E 0.30 8 LM SN DM ANB M Edible root. Drought tolerant.
Liriope muscari   P E 0.45 8 LM FSN DM ANB M Edible root. Drought tolerant.
Liriope spicata   P E 0.30 4 LM SN DM ANB M Edible root. Drought tolerant.
Lonicera henryi   Cl E 4.00 4 LMH SN M ANB F Edible flowers, leaves and stems.
Lonicera japonica   Cl E 5.00 4 LMH SN DM ANB F Edible flowers. Tea.
Lonicera nitida Boxleaf honeysuckle Sh E 3.60 7 LMH FSN M ANB F Can also be used as a hedge.
Lonicera pileata   Sh E 0.20 5 LMH FSN DM ANB M Tolerates maritime exposure.
Lysimachia nummularia Creeping Jenny P E 0.15 4 LMH SN MWeWa ANB M Tea.
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape Sh E 2.00 5 LMH FSN DM ANB M Edible fruit and flowers. Dye.
Mahonia repens Oregon grape Sh E 0.30 6 LMH SN DM ANB M Edible fruit. Dye.
Maianthemum canadense   P   0.20 3 LMH FS M ANB M The fruit might be edible.
Matteuccia struthiopteris Ostrich Fern F   0.90 2 LMH S M AN M Edible young leaves and root.
Meehania urticifolia   P   0.30 5 LMH S M ANB   Edible young leaves.
Mentha requienii Corsican mint P   0.10 6 LMH SN M ANB S Edible young leaves. Tea.
Millium effusum Wood millet P   1.80 6 LMH FS DM ANB M Edible seed. Weaving, soil stabilization.
Miscanthus sinensis Eulalia P   4.00 4 LMH SN M ANB F Biomass. Wind tolerant.
Mitchella repens Partridge berry Sh E 0.30 3 LM SN M AN   Edible fruit.
Mitchella undulata   P E 0.10 6 LM SN M AN   Edible fruit.
Montia sibirica Pink purslane A/P   0.15 3 LMH FSN DM ANB M Edible leaves and flowers.
Muehlenbeckia axillaris   Cl D 0.30 8 LMH SN M ANB M Edible fruit.
Oenanthe javanica Water dropwort P   1.00 10 LMH N WeWa ANB   Edible root, leaves and seed.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern F   1.20 4 LMH FS MWe AN   Edible young leaves and root.
Ophiopogon japonicus   P E 0.30 7 LM SN MWeWa ANB   Edible root.
Origanum vulgare Oreganum P   0.60 5 LMH SN DM ANB M Edible leaves, tea, condiment. Essential oil, dye, insect repellent. Medicinal.
Origanum vulgare hirtum Greek oregano P   0.60 5 LMH SN DM ANB M As above.
Oxalis oregana Redwood sorrel P   0.20 7 LMH FSN M ANB M Edible young leaves.
Pachyphragma macrophylla   P E 0.40 7 LMH FS DM ANB   Edible leaves?
Pachysandra terminalis   Sh E 0.20 5 LMH FS DM ANB M Edible fruit. Drought tolerant.
Paronychia argentea Algerian tea P   0.10 7 LM N DM ANB   Tea substitute.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper Cl D 30.00 3 LMH SN M ANB F Edible fruit and stems. Dye.
Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy Cl D 18.00 4 LMH SN M ANB F Edible sap.
Peltaria alliacea Garlic cress P E 0.30 6 LM SN M ANB M Edible leaves.
Pennisetum alopecuroides   P   1.50 7 LM N DM ANB   Edible seed.
Petasites albus Butterbur P   0.60 5 LMH FSN M ANB F Edible leaf stems.
Petasites frigidus Sweet coltsfoot P   0.15 5 LMH FSN MWe ANB F Edible leaves, stems and roots.
Petasites japonicus Sweet coltsfoot P   1.50 5 LMH FSN MWe ANB F Edible leaf stems and flowers.
Phalaris arundinacea Canary grass P   1.50 4 LMH SN DMWe ANB F
Phlomis fruticosa Jerusalem sage Sh E 1.30 7 LMH N DM ANB M Succeeds in poor soils.
Phlomis russeliana   P   1.00 7 LMH SN DM ANB F Drought tolerant.
Phlomis samia   P   1.00 7 LMH SN DM ANB F
Phyla nodiflora Frogfruit P   0.20 10 LMH N DM ANB   Edible leaves. Tea.
Picea abies Norway spruce T E 60.00 4 LMH N MWe AN F Selected dwarf cultivars are used. Edible cones, inner bark, tea. Adhesive, turpentine.
Pinus mugo Dwarf mountain pine T E 4.50 3 LM N DM AN M Condiment, dye. Soil stabilization.
Platycrater arguta   Sh D 0.20 8 LMH S M ANB   Tea. Wind tolerant.
Pleioblastus humilis   B E 2.00 7 LMH S M ANB F Soil stabilization.
Pleioblastus humilis pumilus   B E 1.00 7 LMH S M ANB F Soil stabilization.
Pleioblastus pygmaeus Fern-leaf bamboo B E 0.25 6 LMH SN M ANB F Soil stabilization.
Pleioblastus pygmaeus distichus   B E 0.75 6 LMH SN M ANB F Soil stabilization.
Pleioblastus variegatus White-striped bamboo B E 0.75 7 LMH SN M ANB F Soil stabilization.
Polypodium vulgare Polypody F E 0.30 3 LMH FS DM ANB M Edible root.
Potentilla fruticosa Shrubby cinquefoil Sh D 1.20 6 LMH SN M ANB M Tea. Drought tolerant.
Primula vulgaris Primrose P   0.30 6 LMH SN M ANB M Edible young leaves and flowers.
Prunella grandiflora   P E 0.15 5 LMH SN M ANB M Edible leaves.
Prunella vulgaris Self-heal P   0.15 3 LMH SN M ANB M Edible leaves, drink. Dye.
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel Sh E 6.00 7 LMH FSN M ANB M Edible fruit? Dye. Use selected cultivars.
Pueraria lobata Kudzu vine P Cl   15.00 6 LMH N M ANB F Edible root, stem and leaves. Fibre.
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort P E 0.30 4 LMH FS M ANB M Edible leaves.

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Pulmonaria saccharata Jerusalem sage P E 0.30 3 LMH FSN M ANB M Condiment.
Reineckia carnea   P E 0.10 7 LMH FS M AN  
Rheum palmatum Turkey rhubarb P   3.00 7 MH SN M ANB M Edible leaf stem. Insecticide.
Ribes glandulosum Skunk currant Sh D 0.40 2 LMH SN M ANB   Edible fruit.
Rosa wichuraiana   Sh D 0.30 5 LMH SN M ANB M Edible fruit and young shoots.
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Sh E 2.00 6 LM N DM ANB M Condiment, tea. Insect repellent, incense, hair shampoo, essential oil, medicinal.
Rubus arizonicus   Sh D 0.20   LMH SN M ANB   Edible fruit. Dye.
Rubus calycinoides   Sh E 0.08   LMH FSN M ANB   Edible fruit. Dye.
Rubus hispidus Swamp dewberry Sh E 0.20 3 LMH SN M ANB   Edible fruit. Dye.
Rubus illecebrosus Strawberry-raspberry Sh D 0.60 5 LMH SN M ANB M Edible fruit. Dye.
Rubus nepalensis Nepalese raspberry Sh E 0.20 9 LMH SN M ANB M Edible fruit. dye.
Rubus parvus   Sh E 0.20 9 LMH SN M ANB   Edible fruit, sap. Dye.
Rubus tricolor Creeping bramble Sh E 0.30 7 LMH FSN DM ANB F Edible fruit. dye.
Ruscus aculeatus Butcher's broom Sh E 1.00 7 LMH FS DM ANB S Edible shoots, coffee. Scourer.
Salix repens Creeping willow Sh D 1.50 5 LMH SN M ANB   Soil stabilizer and soil reclamation..
Salvia officinalis Sage Sh E 0.60 5 LM N DM NB M Condiment, tea. Essential oil, insect repellent.
Sanicula europaea Wood sanicle P   0.60 6 LMH SN M ANB   Edible leaves?
Santolina chamaecyparissus Lavender-cotton Sh E 0.60 7 LM N DM ANB M Condiment. Essential oil, insect repellent, dye.
Sasa veitchii Kuma-zasa B E 1.50 8 LMH S M ANB F
Saxifraga stolonifera Strawberry saxifrage P   0.40 5 LMH S M ANB   Edible leaves and flowering stem.
Schizophragma hydrangioides   Cl D 6.00 5 LMH SN M ANB S Edible leaves.
Sedum acre Common stonecrop P E 0.12 5 LMH N DM ANB F Edible leaves, condiment. Tolerates drought.
Sedum album Small houseleek P   0.10 6 LMH N DM ANB F Edible leaves. Tolerates maritime exposure.
Sedum anacampseros Loce restorer P   0.10 6 LMH SN DM AN   Edible leaves.
Sedum spathulifolium   P E 0.15 7 LMH N DM ANB M Edible leaves.
Sedum spurium   P E 0.15 7 LMH N DM ANB M Edible leaves.
Shibataea kumasasa Okame-zasa B E 0.75 6 LMH S M ANB F
Stephanandra incisa   Sh D 2.50 5 LMH SN M ANB   Edible young leaves.
Symphytum tuberosum   P   0.60 5 LMH SN M ANB F Coffee substitute.
Thymus praecox   Sh E 0.05 5 LM N DM ANB M Condiment. Essential oil, medicinal.
Thymus serpyllum Wild thyme Sh E 0.10 5 LM N DM ANB M Edible leaves, tea. Essential oil, insect repellent, fungicide, medicinal. Wind tolerant.
Thymus vulgaris Common thyme Sh E 0.20 7 LM N DM NB M As above.
Thymus x citriodorus Lemon thyme Sh E 0.20 7 LM N DM NB M As above.
Tiarella cordifolia Foamflower P E 0.20 3 LMH SN M ANB S Medicinal.
Tolmiea menziesii Youth on age P   0.60 7 LMH FS DM ANB M Edible young shoots.
Trachelospermum asiaticum   Cl E 6.00 9 LMH SN M ANB S

Botanical name Common name Habit Evergreen/ Deciduous Height (meters) Hardiness zone Soil Shade Moisture pH Growth rate Notes
Trifolium repens White clover P E 0.10 4 LMH N M ANB M Edible leaves and flowers. Tea.
Vaccinium crassifolium Creeping blueberry Sh E 0.10 7 LM SN M A   Edible fruit.
Vaccinium nummularia   Sh E 0.10   LM SN M A   Edible fruit
Vaccinium praestans Kamchatka bilberry Sh D 0.15 4 LM S M A S Edible fruit.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Cowberry Sh E 0.35 5 LM SN M A   Edible fruit, tea. Dye.
Vinca minor Lesser periwinkle Sh E 0.20 4 LMH FSN DM ANB M Basket making. Medicinal. Drought tolerant.
Viola cornuta Viola P E 0.30 5 LMH SN M AN   Edible leaves, flowers, tea.
Viola labradorica Labrador violet P E 0.10 2 LMH FSN M AN   Edible leaves and flowers.
Viola obliqua Marsh blue violet P   0.15   LMH SN MWe ANB   Edible flowers, leaves, tea.
Vitis coignetiae Crimson glory vine Cl D 20.00 5 LMH SN DM ANB F Edible leaves and stems. Dye.
Vitis davidii Spiny vitis Cl D 20.00 7 LMH SN DM ANB   Edible fruit and leaves. Dye.
Xanthorrhiza simplicissima Yellowroot Sh D 1.00 6 LMH SN MWe A   Dye.

KEY.

Habit: A = Annual. B = Bamboo. Bi = Biennial. Cl - Climber. F = Fern. Sh = Shrub. T = Tree. P = Perennial.

Deciduous/Evergreen: D = Deciduous. E = Evergreen.

Hardiness zone: 1 = Succeeds in the Arctic zone. 10 = Does not tolerate frost. Most of Britain is in zone 7, the milder areas are zone 8 (though some zone 9 plants can be there), some upland and northern areas are 6 or lower.

Soil: L = Light. M = Medium. H = Heavy.

Shade: F = Succeeds in full shade. S = Succeeds in semi-shade. N = Succeeds in full sun (or no shade).

Moisture: D = Succeeds in dry soils. M = Succeeds in moist soils (the average soil moisture level). We = Succeeds in wet soils. Wa = Succeeds in water.

pH: A = Succeeds in acid soils. N = Succeeds in neutral soils. B = Succeeds in basic (alkaline soils).

Growth rate: S = Slow. M = Medium. F = Fast.

When using this list it is important to remember that it can only contain a small portion of the information we hold on each plant. You are stronglt advised to seek more information on any plant before making use of it in the manner suggested.

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