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Cinchona pubescens - Vahl
                 
Common Name Quinine tree, Red Bark, Cinchona, Quina, Quinquina, Quinine Bark, Peruvian Bark, Jesuit's Bark
Family Rubiaceae
USDA hardiness 10-12
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Cool, humid, mountain regions at elevations of 1,000 - 3,700 metres[ 200 , 310 ].
Range S. America - Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela; C. America - Panama, Costa Rica.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential Yes
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Tender Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
A native species to Central and South America, Red Bark or Red Cinchona (Cinchona pubescens) is a usually 10 m tall deciduous tree with small, thick, and hairy branches known as an effective medicinal plant for malaria due to the quinine content of its bark. It is fast-growing and flowering starts 2 ? 3 years after planting. The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb and made into powder, tablets, liquid extracts and tinctures. It should be noted however that excessive use of such has various side effects like headache, rash, abdominal pain, deafness, and blindness. The quinine is also used in making hair oils, shampoo, and insecticide, and as a vulcanizing agent, and in the preparation of certain metals. F

Cinchona pubescens Quinine tree, Red Bark, Cinchona, Quina, Quinquina, Quinine Bark, Peruvian Bark, Jesuit


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Cinchona pubescens Quinine tree, Red Bark, Cinchona, Quina, Quinquina, Quinine Bark, Peruvian Bark, Jesuit
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Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Cinchona pubescens is an evergreen Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. and are pollinated by Bees, Butterflies.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
Cinchona caloptera Miq. Cinchona chomeliana Wedd. Cinchona colorata Laubert ex B.D.Jacks. Cinchona c

Habitats
Edible Uses
Quinine, extracted from the bark of the tree, is used as a bitter flavouring in tonic waters, some liqueurs, carbonated drinks, baked goods, candy etc[ 238 , 301 ].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



Red bark has a long history of native use, especially as a treatment for fevers and malaria. Modern research has shown it to be a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark contains various alkaloids, particularly quinine and quinidine. Up to 70 - 80% of the total alkaloids contained in the bark are quinine[ 418 ]. The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine)[ 238 ]. The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders[ 238 ]. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation[ 238 ]. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies[ 238 ]. The liquid extract is useful as a cure for drunkenness[ 418 ]. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throats[ 238 ]. Care must be taken in the use of this herb since excess can cause a number of side effects including cinchonism, headache, rash, abdominal pain, deafness and blindness[ 238 ]. The herb, especially in the form of the extracted alkaloid quinine, is subject to legal restrictions in some countries[ 238 ].
Other Uses
Other uses rating: Low (2/5). The alkaloid quinine, extracted from the bark, is used in products like hair oils and shampoo, sun-tan oil, insecticides, as a vulcanizing agent in the rubber industry, and in the preparation of certain metals[ 418 ].
Cultivation details
Industrial Crop: Medicinal;  Management: Coppice;  Minor Global Crop.

A plant of moderate elevations in the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations from 800 - 3,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 17 - 25?c, but can tolerate 9 - 28?c[ 418 ]. It can be killed by temperatures of 5?c or lower[ 418 ]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 2,500 - 3,500mm, but tolerates 1,400 - 4,000mm[ 418 ]. Requires a well-drained, moist soil and a position in full sun or partial shade[ 238 , 418 ]. It grows very poorly or not at all on soils that have been exposed to fire[ 418 ]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6, tolerating 4.5 - 6.5[ 418 ]. A fast-growing tree, the plants start flowering after 2 - 3 years, and are uprooted and harvested after 8 - 12 years[ 418 ]. In commercial plantations, the trees are coppiced when about 6 years old[ 238 ].
Propagation
Seed

Books by Plants For A Future

Other Names
Red Bark or Red Cinchona (Cinchona pubescens). Other Names: Jesuits' Peruvian-bark; red Cinchona; red Peruvian-bark; sacred Peruvian-bark. Spanish: cascarilla amarga; cascarilla gallinazo; varona. French: quinquina rouge. Brazil: quina-do-Amazonas. Ecuador: cascarilla; roja-roja.
Found In
Found In: Asia, Bolivia, Central America, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Hawaii, India, Indonesia, Pacific, South America, USA, Venezuela.
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Widely introduced throughout the tropics over the past 150 years because of its medicinal properties. However, it is only in small island systems, notably the Galapagos and Hawaii, that it has become invasive [1d].
Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : This taxon has not yet been assessed
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Author
Vahl
Botanical References
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.
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Subject : Cinchona pubescens  

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