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Diospyros lotus - L.                
                 
Common Name Date Plum
Family Ebenaceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Mixed mountain forests to 1500 metres in China[74].
Range E. Asia - China, Japan. Himalayas.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Diospyros lotus is a deciduous Tree growing to 9 m (29ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : 7-9


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Diospyros lotus Date Plum


http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/???:S64
Diospyros lotus Date Plum
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3]. The fruit has an exquisitely rich flavour when it is fully ripe (almost at the point of going bad), but it is very harsh and astringent before then[K]. The fruit may not ripen properly in a cool summer, though if it is frosted it normally develops a very good flavour[K]. The fruit can be dried, when it acquires a date-like flavour[61, 183]. The fruit can also be harvested in the autumn, preferably after a frost, and bletted[183]. (This is a process where the fruit is kept in a cool place and only eaten when it is very soft and almost at the point of going rotten). The fruit of trees in a fairly sunny position at Kew ripens on the tree in most years and produces fertile seed[K]. The fruit contains about 1.9% protein, 0.2% fat, 47.7% carbohydrate, 1% ash[179]. Fruits are about the size of a large cherry, they turn from yellow to blue-black when fully ripe[183]. The fruit is about 20mm in diameter[200].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Febrifuge;  Sedative.

The fruit is febrifuge[178, 240]. It is also used to promote secretions[240]. The seed is regarded in China as being sedative[240].
Other Uses
Rootstock;  Wood.

Sometimes used as a rootstock for D. kaki[183]. Wood - durable, pliable, resists rot. Used for construction, general carpentry etc[74].
Cultivation details                                         
Requires a good deep loamy soil in sun or light shade[200]. When being grown for its fruit, the tree should be given a warm, sheltered, sunny position[K]. It dislikes very acid or wet and poorly drained soils[200]. Dormant plants are very cold-hardy, but the young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. Dioecious, but the female tree can produce seedless fruits in the absence of a pollinator[1]. It is likely that unfertilized fruits are more astringent than fertilized fruits since this is the case with D. kaki[K]. Plants have a long tap root and are difficult to transplant[200], it is best to plant them out in their permanent position as soon as possible and to give protection overwinter for the first year or two[K]. This species is sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit in Italy and E. Asia, there are some named varieties[142, 183].
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[113, 200]. Stored seed requires a period of cold-stratification and should be sown as early in the year as possible[78]. It usually germinates in 1 - 6 months at 15°c[175]. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle into fairly deep pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. Give them some protection from winter cold for their first year or two outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200]. Layering in spring[200].
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
L.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1174200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74]Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR.
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[142]Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man.
Readable but not very comprehensive.
[175]Bird. R. (Editor) Focus on Plants. Volume 5. (formerly 'Growing from seed')
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Corydalis spp.
[178]Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica.
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.
[179]Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao.
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[240]Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Hans Perneel Mon Dec 04 14:46:48 2000
And some information about Diospyros lotus and virginia, they both carry fruits here in Belgium ,and I have already tasted the lotus. One fruit the size of a tomato had fallen from the tree and was at an early stage of rotting, but the rest of it whas very good of taste.
Elizabeth H.
Thu Dec 16 11:23:51 2004
I saw one in Cambridge Botanic Garden covered in fruit.
Elizabeth H.
rajju Sat Feb 4 2006
can u tel me where it is available in india
Elizabeth H.
Dithmar Guillaume Sun Dec 23 2007
I live in belgium and I am a collector and nurseryman of edible landscaping plants. I have a large collection of diospyros species that produce edible fruit and all fruit very well in my country and carry tasty fruit but I yet have to come across a Diospyros lotus that produce LARGE and VERY TASTY fruit different from the type plant. Does anybody know if such a selected variety exists. There many selections of D.virginiana and many more of D.kaki but so far no known selections of very well fruiting D.lotus.
Elizabeth H.
Barkat Ali Khan Thu Feb 1 2007
Diospyros lotus is abundant in the Swat valley of Pakistan, the poor farmers sell it on very low prices then the dealers sell it in the down country cities. Now Lasoona-Society for human and natural resource development and IPRP project is working for its value additions and inhacing income of the mountain people through marketing of Diospyrus lotus.
Elizabeth H.
Mon Jan 5 2009
Las explicaciones estan muy bien. Pero este es un medio audiovisual. Y, la vista y el entendimiento agradecen ver algo más que símbolos gráficos. Así, dando las gracias por disponer esta pagina y su información. Solicito formalmente que sea de costumbre en esta página y en toda la red, que se extienda la sana costumbre de acompañar las letras con fotos, gráficos, dibujos, etc. Muchas gracias.
Elizabeth H.
Stephen Hayes Sat Nov 28 2009
Whilst I acknowledge that the tree is dioecious, where I live in East London there is a mature tree growing in my friends front garden full of ripe fruit as I write. I have not seen another one in the area, in fact it is a very rare tree to see in London. Question: How does it produce fruit?(In grest quantity?) unless this particular one is a self pollinator. I will examine its flowers next year and prove it to myself!!
Elizabeth H.
david Sat Nov 28 2009
Stephen, female flowering D.lotus are able to produce seedless fruit without a male around, but these fruit will be more astringent than fertillised ones (Source of info: Discovering fruit and nuts by S lyle)
Elizabeth H.
Dithmar Guillaume Sun Jan 17 2010
indeed, D.lotus is dioecious but as is the case with many (or perhaps most)diospyros species, a female tree will readily produce fruit but without seed(parthenocarpic fruit set). Nevertheless, in my collection I have a male tree that does set fruit. It has the typical clustered flowers of the male tree(bunches of 3 flowers )but they do develop into mature fruit, albeit smaller than those formed on female trees. But does anyone know of a variety that has really big fruit (i.e. somewhat like D.virginiana)
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