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Crataegus arnoldiana - Sarg.
Common Name
Family Rosaceae
USDA hardiness 5-9
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Wooded banks[43]. Thickets on a dry bank[82].
Range North-eastern N. America - Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Wet Soil Semi-shade Full sun


Crataegus arnoldiana

(c) 2010 Ken Fern & Plants For A Future
Crataegus arnoldiana
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Crataegus arnoldiana is a deciduous Tree growing to 7 m (23ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[105, 177]. Sub-acid[82]. A delicious flavour, it is sweet with a soft juicy flesh and makes an excellent dessert fruit[K]. It can also be cooked and used in pies, preserves etc and can be dried for later use. The fruit ripens in early September in southern Britain[K]. The fruit is about 2cm in diameter[K]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].
Medicinal Uses

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Cardiotonic;  Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure[222]. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious[222]. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture[222].
Other Uses
Wood - heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items[82].
Cultivation details
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy[11, 200]. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[200]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[200]. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[200]. This is a tree with an excellent potential as a fruit crop in Britain. The fruit is of very good quality and is freely borne, whilst the tree is of very easy cultivation and rarely troubled by pests or diseases[K]. A tree at the Hillier Arboretum in September 1993 was about 3 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide. The growth looked somewhat weak and the tree was leaning due to wind rock but it was carrying a heavy crop of fruit[K]. Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K]. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones[245]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is very closely related to C. mollis, and considered to be part of that species by many botanists[229]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted[11].
Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[164]. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K]. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring[80]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Crataegus acclivis 42
Crataegus aestivalisEastern Mayhaw, May hawthorn, Mayhaw, Apple Hawthorn32
Crataegus altaicaAltai Mountain Thorn32
Crataegus anomalaArnold hawthorn32
Crataegus apiifoliaParsley-Leaved Hawthorn22
Crataegus aprica 32
Crataegus armena 22
Crataegus atrosanguinea 32
Crataegus azarolusAzarole42
Crataegus baroussana 42
Crataegus caesa 42
Crataegus calpodendronPear Hawthorn32
Crataegus canadensisCanadian hawthorn22
Crataegus canbyiCockspur hawthorn, Dwarf Hawthorn, Cockspur Hawthorn22
Crataegus champlainensisQuebec hawthorn42
Crataegus chlorosarca 32
Crataegus chrysocarpaFireberry Hawthorn, Red haw, Piper's hawthorn,32
Crataegus coccinoidesKansas Hawthorn32
Crataegus columbianaColumbian Hawthorn32
Crataegus crus-galliCockspur Thorn, Cockspur hawthorn, Dwarf Hawthorn22
Crataegus cuneataSanzashi, Chinese hawthorn33
Crataegus dilatataBroadleaf hawthorn32
Crataegus dispessaMink hawthorn32
Crataegus douglasiiBlack Hawthorn42
Crataegus durobrivensis 42
Crataegus ellwangerianaScarlet Hawthorn52
Crataegus elongata 42
Crataegus festiva 52
Crataegus flabellataFanleaf hawthorn32
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Expert comment
Botanical References
Links / References
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Readers comment
Elizabeth H.
Dr.Volodymyr Mezhenskyj Mon May 31 20:39:32 2004
Crataegus Cultivars

Dear Sirs,

I work with hawthorns as a new fruit crop. In 2001 the following pomological cultivars are included in the Register of Plant Varieties of the Ukraine: `Ljudmyl` - branches spineless, fruits orange red, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, weighing 4.5 (max 10) g, satisfactory taste, ripen in September; `Shamil` - branches with not numerous spines 3-4 cm in length, fruits red, 2 cm in diameter, weighing 4 (max 6) g, good taste, ripen in September; `Zbigniew` - branches with numerous spines 5-6 cm in length, fruits bright red, 2 cm in diameter, weighing 3,5 (max 5) g, good taste, ripen in August. The promising selection is `Zlat` - branches spineless, fruits yellow, up to 2 cm in diameter, weighing 3(max 4) g, good taste, ripen in September.

Dr.Volodymyr Mezhenskyj, Artemivsk Research Center of Institution of Horticulture, Opytne, Artemivsk, Donetska obl., 84571 UKRAINE

Elizabeth H.
Guillaume Hue Tue Nov 21 2006
Hello ! I read that the crataegus species hybridise freely in the genus, which i understand means that the seeds don't come true to parent. But i also read that they are apomictic, which, there being no sexual fertilisation should mean they naturally come true to type... Is this last characteristic perticular to some species only ? Or is there something i just misunderstood ? I collected a lot of delicious haws with their seeds from multiple trees in botanical gardens and wonder if I will have to graft them all... I am immensely greatful for this incredible website, may it turn the whole planet into a beautiful forest garden ! Guillaume.
Elizabeth H.
Ken Fern, Plants for a Future Wed Nov 22 2006
Over the years, we have collected seed of various Crataegus species with large tasty fruits. Invariably, the fruit produced from the seedlings show distinct differences from the parent tree - the most likely difference is that the fruit will be smaller and less tasty than the parent tree. Having said that, we have also had a number of seedlings that have produced excellent fruits. From what I can gather, there are a number of microspecies that are apomictic, but by no means is the trait to be found in all species. It also seems that apomixy is only found in polyploid species that are thought to result from hybridisation.
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Subject : Crataegus arnoldiana  

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