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Citrus x meyeri - Tan.                
                 
Common Name Lemon
Family Rutaceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Not known in the wild.
Range Original habitat is obscure, the plant is probably a hybrid involving C. limon x C. sinensis[200].
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Half Hardy Moist Soil Full sun

Summary       

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of shrub
Citrus x meyeri is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jan to December. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Apomictic, insects.The plant is self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : 8-11


Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Citrus x meyeri Lemon


http://flickr.com/photos/badthings/
Citrus x meyeri Lemon
http://myrarefruitphotos.blogspot.com/
   
Habitats       
 South Wall. By. West Wall. By.
Edible Uses                                         
Fruit - raw or cooked[1, 3, 46]. A medium-size fruit, the rind is thin and soft, the flesh tender, very juicy and mildly acid[183]. Moderately seedy[183]. A very nice tasting lemon, a pot-grown shrub yielded 12 lemons in 1993[K]. A very acid taste[61]. Mainly used as a drink and as a flavouring[183, 238]. It is also used in salad dressings etc where it acts as an antioxidant as well as imparting an acid flavour[183]. The juice is used to help set jam[238]. The fruit can be up to 15cm long and 7cm wide[200]. The fruit bruises easily and so is not suitable for transportation to distant markets[260]. The dried rind of the fruit is often used as a flavouring in cakes etc[1, 4, 61, 183]. The dried leaves are sometimes mixed with tea leaves for use as a flavouring[183]. An essential oil from the rind is used as a food flavouring[46, 64, 183]. The flowers are eaten in ice creams, fritters, jams etc[183]. They have a pleasant lemon flavour[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



Lemons are an excellent preventative medicine and have a wide range of uses in the domestic medicine chest. The fruit is rich in vitamin C which helps the body to fight off infections and also to prevent or treat scurvy[4, 240, 254]. It was at one time a legal requirement that sailors should be given an ounce of lemon each day in order to prevent scurvy[4]. Applied locally, the juice is a good astringent and is used as a gargle for sore throats etc[4]. Lemon juice is also a very effective bactericide[7]. It is also a good antiperiodic and has been used as a substitute for quinine in treating malaria and other fevers[4]. Although the fruit is very acid, once eaten it has an alkalizing effect upon the body[254]. This makes it useful in the treatment of rheumatic conditions[254]. The skin of the ripe fruit is carminative and stomachic[240]. The essential oil from the skin of the fruit is strongly rubefacient and when taken internally in small doses has stimulating and carminative properties[4]. The stem bark is bitter, stomachic and tonic[218]. An essential oil from the fruit rind is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Refreshing'[210]. Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, bioflavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people[238]. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics[238]. The bioflavonoids in the fruit help to strengthen the inner lining of blood vessels, especially veins and capillaries, and help counter varicose veins and easy bruising[254].
Other Uses
A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making[46, 61]. An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines[7, 46, 61]. A higher quality essential oil is obtained from the flowers[7]. The peel contains 0.4% essential oil[240]. An essential oil obtained from the leaves and young twigs is called 'petitgrain oil'. Yields are around 0.4%[240]. The dried fruit rind has been used as an insect repellent in the clothes cupboard[7] and also in pot-pourri[238]. The juice of the fruit is used for polishing bronze and other metals that have been neglected[7]. It can also be used for removing ink stains[7]. Wood - nicely veined, it takes a beautiful polish[4].
Cultivation details                                         
Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added and a very sunny position[1, 200]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 6[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.8 to 8.3. Plants are intolerant of water logging[3]. When growing plants in pots, a compost comprising equal quantities of loam and leafmould plus a little charcoal should produce good results[260]. Do not use manure since Citrus species dislike it[260]. When watering pot plants it is important to neither overwater or underwater since the plant will soon complain by turning yellow and dying. Water only when the compost is almost dry, but do not allow it to become completely dry[260]. This is the hardiest lemon[200]. Dormant plants can withstand temperatures down to about -6°c so long as this is preceded by a spell of 2 - 3 weeks of cool weather to allow the plant to acclimatize[3]. If the change from mild to cold weather is more sudden then the plant will still be in growth and will be much more susceptible to damage and can be harmed by temperatures below 0°c[3]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. It is best if a winter minimum of 4°c is maintained[3]. A small to medium spreading tree, it is nearly thornless, hardy and productive[183]. The plant is closely related to C. limon and is probably of hybrid origin[183]. By budding onto hardier species such as C. aurantium, C. ichangensis or Poncirus trifoliata, the lemon becomes more cold tolerant and its climatic range can be somewhat extended[3]. The flowers are sweetly scented[245]. Plants dislike root disturbance and so should be placed into their permanent positions when young. If growing them in pots, great care must be exercised when potting them on into larger containers[238].
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it ripe after thoroughly rinsing it[164, 200]. Sow stored seed in March in a greenhouse[3]. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 3 weeks at 13°c. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. The seed is usually polyembrionic, two or more seedlings arise from each seed and they are genetically identical to the parent but they do not usually carry any virus that might be present in the parent plant[200]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least three growing seasons before trying them outdoors. Plant them out in the summer and give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. This species grows easily from cuttings[200]. Layering in October.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
Tan.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7]Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[64]Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins.
A very good book dealing with the subject in a readable way.
[164]Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[210]Westwood. C. Aromatherapy - A guide for home use.
An excellent little pocket guide. Very concise.
[218]Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[240]Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[245]Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
[254]Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[260]Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2
Excellent photos of over 1,100 species and cultivars with habits and cultivation details plus a few plant uses. Many species are too tender for outdoors in Britain though there are many that can be grown outside.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Tue Nov 25 14:41:29 2003
I have been using lemon juice from grocers and waitrose to wash my hair for past month. It's remarkable! Appalling dandruff scabs sores gone. I carefully sqeeze it straight on wettish hair. I've heard or read that the enzymes are exfoliant. Things flared up and stung a lot to start but perservered and now have fantastic condition hair and skin to boot. Anti dandruff and P45 get the boot!
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