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Aronia melanocarpa - (Michx.)Elliot.                
                 
Common Name Black Chokeberry, Black Berried Aronia
Family Rosaceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Swamps and low woodlands, it is sometimes also found in drier soils[200, 235].
Range Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Florida and Michigan.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of shrub
Aronia melanocarpa is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

USDA hardiness zone : 3-8


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Aronia melanocarpa Black Chokeberry, Black Berried Aronia


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Sten
Aronia melanocarpa Black Chokeberry, Black Berried Aronia
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nova
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Pectin;  Pectin.

Fruit - cooked. A good flavour but very astringent[183]. The fruit should be fully ripe before being eaten and is best after a frost or two[K]. It makes a good jelly when sugar is added and is also dried and used for making pemmican[183]. The fruit is rich in pectin and can be added to fruits that are low in this substance when making jams etc[183]. Pectin is also said to protect the body against radiation[201]. The fruit is about 9mm in diameter[200].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Miscellany.

An infusion of the berries has been used in the treatment of colds[257].
Other Uses
Miscellany;  Pectin;  Pectin.

The fruit is a source of pectin[183], a substance that is used to thicken jams etc and as a culture medium in laboratories.
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Screen, Specimen. Prefers a moist peaty soil in full sun or partial shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils but dislikes shallow chalk[200]. More tolerant of dry soils than other members of this genus[200]. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. There is at least one cultivar developed for its improved fruit. 'Nero' has fruits twice the size of the species with a vitamin C content of 15 - 30 mg (per 100g?). The fruit is borne in clusters of about 15, it is more flavourful and the yield is about twice that of wild forms[183]. Other cultivars developed mainly for their ornamental value include 'Viking' with extra large berries and 'Aron' with numerous large berries[182]. The sub-species A. melanocarpa elata Rehd. and A. melanocarpa grandifolia (Lindl.)Schneid. are more vigorous than the type species with larger flowers and fruits[200]. This genus is closely related to Sorbus species[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attractive flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in pots outdoors or in a cold frame[113]. Pre-soak stored seed overnight and then cold stratify for 3 months at 2°c[113]. The seed germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c[134]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[113]. Division of suckers in the dormant season[200]. Very easy, they can be planted straight out into their permanent positions. Layering[200].
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(Michx.)Elliot.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[134]Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. An interesting article on Ensete ventricosum.
[182]Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[201]Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting.
A well produced and very readable book.
[235]Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Jonathan Byron Mon Dec 19 2005
The plant should be rated higher on the medicinal category. Aronia extracts have proven themselves useful as an antioxidant. They reduce inflammation induced by histamine and serotonin. The juice supports vascular/endothelial function, and appears to be a valuable adjunct or secondary therapy for people with heart disease, diabetes, and other conditions.
Elizabeth H.
Birgir Norddahl Sat May 27 2006
Please find the link below for one example of medicinal use (hypoglycemic effect) in diabetes patients - many more can be found.

NCBI PubMed (National Centre for Biotechnology Information)

Elizabeth H.
SW Sun Jun 11 2006
I suspect this is what is known as 'black rowan' in at least three countries; Russia, Lithuania and Czech Republic. A Lithuanian company makes a wine; 'Aronijos'. Website link shows a juicy picture of the berries.

Photos by Nikolay Palshin 2004 Picture: 'Black Rowan'

Elizabeth H.
Michael Fri Sep 15 2006
Hi, I'm really surprised that you don't know that this is one of the most powerful remedies for high blood pressure! Please, adjust your page. If you need any additional info please, write to me at mike_miner@hotmail.com. Thanks, Michael.
Elizabeth H.
David Everett Tue Dec 26 2006
Aronia melanocarpa is an extraordinary medicine plant which has been developed in Poland. It has an incredible array of health qualities, and it deserves a far higher recognition. Last year Professor Iwona Wawer published a book all about it. Known as Chokeberry, the native Americans used it to prepare pemmican (dried meat). It has a higher concentration of vitamin C than blackcurrants, but it also contains a host of other valuable substances, especially antioxidants, polyphenols, bioflavonoids, and tannins. It is a very hardy and vigorous plant and can survive most conditions. The book is still difficult to obtain, even with the ISBN (83-923931-0-4). The printers are Nature's Print Ltd., Suite 4, 34 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 0RH (no phone no. given). If you still have difficulty, and want to know more, contact Polfrutz Company, 2 George St, Wellington TA21 8JA.
Elizabeth H.
Carla Mon Oct 29 2007
We received some sticks from Montana but have not had much luck in getting them to produce leaves or grow. In eastern Montana they grow along the drainage diches or hiway in poor conditions. I'd like to buy a plant but haven't been able to find any. Any ideas where I can find one?
Elizabeth H.
Kitty Antonik Wakfer Mon Mar 3 2008
This highly beneficial fruit is not getting sufficient attention - partly because websites such as this are terribly out of date regarding the results of peer reviewed studies. Just a very few: PMID: 15623784 Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis PMID: 16860979 Up-regulation of tumor suppressor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells following repetitive exposure to dietary levels of a polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice. PMID: 17229985 Effects of novel plant antioxidants on platelet superoxide production and aggregation in atherosclerosis. PMID: 18044341 [Effect of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on blood pressure, concentration of endothelin-1 and lipids in patients with metabolic syndrome] PMID: 18231940 Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro. More can be found with search at PubMed.

PubMed Seach on aronia and particular effects

Elizabeth H.
Val Gillespie Sat Jan 26 2008
We planted a small beautiful 'autumn magic' chokeberry in the fall. That very night a rabbit bit off all the branches and ate them along with the leaves and berries! Very nutritious, I'd say!
Elizabeth H.
Snowplow Wed May 28 2008
See the Wikipedia entry for more information on the antioxidant goodness.

Wikipedia Chokeberry entry on Wikipedia

Elizabeth H.
MARK ARGEBAND Fri Jun 6 2008
lOOKING TO SOURCE ARONIA JUICE FOR WHOLSALE AND EXPORT PREF IN EU.
Elizabeth H.
David N Fri Sep 5 2008
Re: rabbit eating Aronia, a mixture of egg-whites, milk and paint(fixing agent) keep rabbits off plants, I get commercial mixes from farm suppliers.
Elizabeth H.
Lukas Sun Nov 30 2008
HI I am a producer of high quality Aronia. If needed I can provide a large amounts of the fresh fruits to full fill your demand (season 2009- approximately 50 tonnes= 50 000 kilograms). Plantations are located in clear and healthy regions of EU. For more imformations please email me: lukasinuk@yahoo.co.uk
Elizabeth H.
Sat Apr 18 2009
Hi , I m a producer of Aronia. welcome to www.aronija.com.hr
Elizabeth H.
Dr. Eldon Everhart Sun Sep 6 2009
The Aronia Festival will be held on September 19 & 20, 10 a.m.- 6 p.m. at Sawmill Hollow Organic Farm, 2159 Kennedy Avenue, in the Loess Hills north of Missouri Valley, Iowa. From Council Bluffs or Sioux City on Interstate 29, Exit 82 (Modale) then follow signs. This is the largest and oldest aronia plantation in the United States. Last year, the Aronia Festival attracted 700 people. I expect we will have over 1,000 this year. Public interest in aronia berries is growing rapidly in the United States. Many acres of aronia are being planted in the Midwest. Aronia may become the next big berry crop in the United States.

Sawmill Hollow Organic Farms

Elizabeth H.
Cheryl Wed Jan 13 2010
Any information about Midwest Aronia Association? Interested in networking with other growers.

Midwest Aronia Association Networking for growers and processors of aronia berries

David W.
Jul 31 2011 12:00AM
Majestic plant in pot. Reproduces readily by cutting or seed.
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