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Acer saccharum - Marshall.
                 
Common Name Sugar Maple, Florida Maple, Hard Maple, Rock Maple
Family Aceraceae
USDA hardiness 5-8
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Found in a variety of soil types, doing best in deep rich well-drained soils from sea level to 1600 metres[229]. Rich usually hilly woods[43].
Range Eastern N. America - Newfoundland to Georgia, west to Texas and Minnesota.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Green. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Rounded.

Acer saccharum Sugar Maple, Florida Maple, Hard Maple, Rock Maple


USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Acer saccharum Sugar Maple, Florida Maple, Hard Maple, Rock Maple
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Acer saccharum is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Synonyms
A. saccharinum. (Non L.)
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark;  Leaves;  Sap;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Sweetener.

The sap contains quite a large proportion of sugar. This can be used as a refreshing drink, or be concentrated into a syrup by boiling off the water[1, 2, 11, 34, 57]. The syrup is used as a sweetener on many foods. The sap can be harvested in late winter or early spring[[142], the flow is best on a warm sunny day after a frost[213]. Trees on southern slopes in sandy soils give the best yields. It is best to make a hole about 7cm deep and about 1.3 metres above the ground[171]. Yields of 40 - 100 litres per tree can be obtained[142]. The best sap production comes from cold-winter areas with continental climates. The sap contains 2 - 6% sugar, thus about 32 litres are required to make a litre of maple syrup[229]. Self-sown seedlings, gathered in early spring, are eaten fresh or dried for later use[213]. Seeds - cooked. The wings are removed and the seeds boiled then eaten hot[62, 105, 159, 213]. The seed is about 6mm long and is produced in small clusters[82]. Inner bark - cooked. It is dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[105, 161].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Blood tonic;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Hepatic;  Ophthalmic.

A tea made from the inner bark is a blood tonic, diuretic and expectorant[222]. It has been used in the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea etc[222]. A compound infusion of the bark has been used as drops in treating blindness[257]. The sap has been used for treating sore eyes[257]. The inner bark has been used as an expectorant and cough remedy[257]. Maple syrup is used in cough syrups and is also said to be a liver tonic and kidney cleanser[222].
Other Uses
Fuel;  Potash;  Preservative;  Wood.

The leaves are packed around apples, rootcrops etc to help preserve them[18, 20]. Wood - close grained, tough, hard, heavy, strong, not very durable, it takes a high polish, remains smooth under abrasion and has a high shock-resistance[46, 61, 82, 171, 227]. It holds nails well, is fair in gluing, dries easily and shrinks moderately[227]. The wood weighs 43lb per cubic foot[235]. Considered by many to be the most valuable hardwood tree in N. America, the sugar maple is used for a wide range of applications including furniture, flooring, turnery, musical instruments and ship building[46, 61, 82, 171, 227]. Accidental forms with the grain curled and contorted, known as curly maple and bird's eye maple, are common and are highly prized in cabinet making[82]. The wood is also a very good fuel, giving off a lot of heat and forming very hot embers[82, 226]. The ashes of the wood are rich in alkali and yield large quantities of potash[82].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Firewood, Screen, Specimen, Street tree, Woodland garden. Of easy cultivation, it prefers a good moist well-drained soil but succeeds on most soils[11, 98], though it is more likely to become chlorotic as a result of iron deficiency on alkaline soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Trees need full light and a lot of space[98]. This species is one of the most shade tolerant of the N. American maples[226]. It tolerates atmospheric pollution[200] and so is often used as a street tree, though it can suffer from soil compaction and the use of salt on the roads in frosty weather. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.3. Hardy to about -45°c when fully dormant[160]. A fast-growing tree for its first 40 years in the wild[229], this species is not a great success in Britain[1], though it does better than once thought[11]. It grows well in Cornwall[59]. In cultivation it has proved to be slow growing when young[11]. Trees can live for 250 years in the wild[229]. A very ornamental tree[1] but a bad companion plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants[18, 20]. This species is commercially exploited in America for its sap[1, 11]. Along with its sub-species it is the major source of maple syrup[11]. There are some named varieties[183]. The sap can be tapped within 10 - 15 years from seed but it does not flow so well in areas with mild winters[160]. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it usually germinates in the following spring. A lot of the seed is non-viable, it is best to cut a few open to see if there is an embryo[113]. An average of 95% germination can be achieved from viable seed[98]. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours and then stratify for 2 - 4 months at 1 - 8°c. It can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking two years[125]. The seed can be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it has dried and produced any germination inhibitors) and sown immediately. It should germinate in late winter. If the seed is harvested too soon it will produce very weak plants or no plants at all[80, 113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions. Layering, which takes about 12 months, is successful with most species in this genus. Cuttings of young shoots in June or July. The cuttings should have 2 - 3 pairs of leaves, plus one pair of buds at the base. Remove a very thin slice of bark at the base of the cutting, rooting is improved if a rooting hormone is used. The rooted cuttings must show new growth during the summer before being potted up otherwise they are unlikely to survive the winter.
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
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Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
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Acer distylum 20
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Acer macrophyllumOregon Maple, Bigleaf maple, Oregon Maple31
Acer monoMaple21
Acer negundoBox Elder31
Acer oblongum 00
Acer palmatumJapanese Maple20
Acer pectinatumMaple00
Acer pensylvanicumMoosewood, Striped maple, Moosewood, Pennsylvania Maple01
Acer platanoidesNorway Maple, Harlequin Maple20
Acer pseudoplatanusSycamore, Great Maple, Scottish Maple, Planetree Maple21
Acer rubrumRed Maple, Drummond's maple, Swamp Maple31
Acer saccharinumSilver Maple, River Maple, Soft Maple31
Acer saccharum grandidentatumBig-Tooth Maple, Canyon Maple, Rocky Mountain Sugar Maple40
Acer saccharum nigrumBlack Maple41
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12
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Author
Marshall.
Botanical References
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Subject : Acer saccharum  

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